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麦麸基凝油材料的制备及其性能研究
吕朋
学位类型硕士
导师马鹏程
2018-05-25
学位授予单位中国科学院大学
学位授予地点北京
学位专业材料工程
关键词凝油材料 油水分离 麦麸 有机硅烷 复合材料
摘要

开发高效环保的凝油材料对控制由溢油和泄漏化学品所造成的水体环境污染具有重要意义。现有的凝油材料主要分为固体凝油材料和液体凝油材料两大类。其中固体凝油材料可以直接以粉末形式撒到溢油上,具有操作简单的优点,但材料在溢油中分散较为困难,因此凝油速度很慢。相对而言,液体凝油材料克服了上述缺点,但是材料在使用时需要加热或使用毒性有机溶剂,因此面临存储和运输方面的挑战。针对上述不足,本论文以价格低廉、来源丰富的麦麸为原料,分别通过表面化学修饰和自由基接枝聚合反应,实现了有机硅烷改性麦麸和高分子改性麦麸这两种复合材料的制备,研究了材料在改性前后物理、化学性质的变化情况,比较了材料的吸油和凝油性能的差别,探讨了所得材料用于凝油的可行性。研究内容主要包括以下三个方面:1)硅烷改性麦麸(Silane-WB)的制备及性能研究:以麦麸、二氧化硅、乙烯基三乙氧基硅烷为原料,通过简单的水热反应制备了Silane-WB,并采用不同手段对所得材料进行了表征。研究发现Silane-WB具有一定的疏水性,材料和水的接触角达到133.2o;材料还表现出良好的亲油性能,对常见有机溶剂和多种油类具有较高的吸附倍率;此外材料还具有一定的凝油性能,将其撒到水面浮油上后,能快速地将浮油吸引凝聚并与之形成聚集体,此聚集体可以通过金属网将其与水分开,从而快速实现油水分离过程。2)浸渍法实现Silane-WB样品的小批量制备:针对研究1中样品单次制备量少等不足,设计简化了Silane-WB的制备过程。该方案以不同硅烷的水解液为改性剂,采用室温浸渍方法对原始麦麸(Raw-WB)进行表面改性,系统研究了含有不同烷基链硅烷体系对Raw-WB表面亲疏水性质的影响。研究发现浸渍法可有效取代研究1中在反应釜中进行的水热法,制备得到的凝油材料可有效地凝聚并去除水面浮油,该优化方案使得Silane-WB的小批量制备和实际应用示范成为可能。3)兼具良好凝油性能和高吸油倍率的高分子改性麦麸(Polymer-WB)的制备及其性能研究:以含有乙烯基的硅烷改性麦麸(Silane-WB)为起始材料,通过自由基聚合反应制备了含多孔聚合物的高分子接枝麦麸复合材料,并采用不同方法对样品进行了表征。研究发现Polymer-WB的吸油倍率较Silane-WB有了显著的提高,同时其凝油性能也有了进一步的改善,可以实现对不同粘度以及不同酸、碱条件下辛烷-水和原油-水混合物的有效快速分离。

其他摘要

Efficient and environment-friendly oil gelling agent (OGA) plays an important role to control the oil spill on water surface and minimize the negative effects of different pollution cases for water and environment. Based on the physical states of material, the reported OGA in literature falls into the category of solid substance and the liquid one. Solid OGA can be used to gel oil directly in the powder form. However, these materials suffer from a slow speed in gelling oil because of the poor diffusion of powder OGA into the oil. The liquid OGA overcomes the above problems, however, it necessitates the use of toxic or hot carrier solvents, causing secondary pollution and problems on the transportation and applicability in large scale. This thesis focuses on the preparation of wheat-bran-based OGA for oil-water separation. Two kinds of composite, i.e., silane modified wheat bran (Silane-WB) and polymer grafted wheat bran (Polymer-WB), were prepared via the surface modification techniques and free radical polymerization, respectively. The variations on the surface properties of materials before and after modification were studied, and the adsorption capabilities and oil gelling properties of the OGA were compared. Major findings are summarized as follows:1) Silane-WB derived from wheat bran, vinyltriethoxysilane and silica was prepared by using a simple hydrothermal process, and the obtained sample was characterized using different techniques. The results showed that the obtained material exhibited a mild hydrophobicity with a water contact angle of 133.2o, and an oleophilicity with high adsorption capacity for various oils and organic solvents. Furthermore, the material performed continuously adsorption and gelling behavior for oil floating on water surface, forming an oil-OGA aggregate when contacting with oil-water mixture. Such capability makes it possible to conveniently salvage oil spills from water surface.2) A simplified method was designed by using an impregnation process at room temperature to achieve scale production of Silane-WB. Various silane terminated with different alkali-chains was used as effective surface modifiers for raw wheat bran (Raw-WB). The results showed that the impregnation method can effectively replace the hydrothermal method and the obtained OGA can effectively gell the oil on water surface. This improvement made it possible to produce Silane-WB in large-scale.3) Polymer-WB was prepared by using Silane-WB as the starting material, divinylbenzene as monomers, to prepare a porous polymer layer which was chemically bonded with Silane-WB on its surface. The obtained Polymer-WB exhibited a higher oil absorption capacity than that of Silane-WB for commonly organic solvents and oils. Additionally, the Polymer-WB showed a better gelling capability to the oil compounds with various viscosities. The feasibility of utilizing the hybrid as an OGA to remove octane and crude oil on water surface was verified.

页数65
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.xjipc.cas.cn/handle/365002/5437
专题环境科学与技术研究室
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吕朋. 麦麸基凝油材料的制备及其性能研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学,2018.
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