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Value-addition to Cotton Fabrics by Surface Modification for Advanced Applications
Md Masud Rana
学位类型博士
导师马鹏程
2017-05-25
学位授予单位中国科学院大学
学位授予地点北京
学位专业材料物理与化学
关键词棉纤维 表面改性 提高附加值 储能 环境治理
摘要

In this thesis, surface modifications were applied to the widely used cotton material. The modification methods, including chemical treatment, nanocomposites coating, carbonization along with hybridization, were proposed and corresponding materials were characterized. The thesis started with the surface modification of raw cotton by a simple alkali treatment, aiming at removing the impurities of outer layers of cotton fiber. It was found that alkali treated cotton displayed hydrophilicity and underwater superoleophobicity like fish scale. When employing the treated pristine cotton cloth as a membrane for oil-water separation, water permeated quickly through the pores and capillary canal of fabrics, whereas oil was obstructed due to the inherent repellency with water. The treated pristine cotton demonstrated high separation efficiency, excellent reusability, antifouling, and self-cleaning properties in a single-unit gravimetric filtration for various oil-water mixtures.Pristine cotton was extremely hydrophilic and adsorbed both oil and water in dry condition. Besides, the impotent antimicrobial activity, poor sensitivity to the ultra-violet (UV) light, confined its advanced applications. Therefore, surface modification with nanocomposites consisting of Ag/AgBr-TiO2 and silane was developed to obtain cotton with multifunctional properties. A superhydrophobic/oleophilic surface was achieved without changing oil adsorption capacity of cotton, which could be potentially used for cleaning oily liquids from water surface as well as underwater. UV and visible light responsive Ag/AgBr-TiO2 nanocomposites endowed the cotton an excellent antibacterial and UV-blocking properties. Pristine cotton was highly porous and fibrous material, which adsorbed metal ions in water. Such cotton was employed to build carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on carbonized cotton (CC) using a single step chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process. The surface modification technique on pristine cotton created hierarchical structures with low weight (0.27 g/cm3), high surface area (137 m2/g) and excellent electric conductivity (3.0 S/cm). When employing the developed CNT-CC material as electrodes for aqueous and solid-gel electrolyte based supercapacitors, the sample exhibited specific areal capacitances of 1286 mF/cm2 (at 1 mA/cm2 current density) and 1140 mF/cm2 (at 2.5 mA/cm2 current density), respectively.In order to enhance areal/volumetric capacitance, surface of CNT-CC was further modified by growing polyaniline (PANI) nanowires on CNT surface by aniline (AN) polymerization. The deposition, density and capacitance behavior of PANI/CNT-CC can be tailored by changing the AN monomer concentration. The results showed that addition of PANI to CNT-CC areal capacitance increased by more than 3 times (from 1 F/cm2 to 3.1 F/cm2 at current of 2mA/cm2), as well as improved electromagnetic shielding properties.

其他摘要

本文将表面改性技术应用于广泛使用的棉纤维材料。采用的表面改性技术包括:化学处理、纳米复合材料的涂覆、碳化等。对棉纤维的处理包括化学处理、纳米复合涂层、碳化以及杂化等方法,并对相应的材料进行了表征。论文以简单的碱处理法对棉纤维表面进行预处理,旨在去除棉纤维外层的杂质。 研究发现,碱处理的棉布如鱼鳞一般具有水下超亲水性。采用经过处理的棉布作为油水分离膜时,水迅速从织物的孔和毛细管中透过,而由于油与水的固有排斥性,油被阻塞。经过处理的棉布在各种油水混合物的单件重量分析过滤中显示出高分离效率、优异的可重复使用性、防污性和自清洁性能。未处理棉布是极其亲水的,在干燥条件下既吸水又吸油。此外无抗菌性能、低的紫外线(UV)敏感性限制了其应用。为此研究了由Ag/AgBr-TiO2和硅烷组成的纳米复合材料对棉布表面进行改性,以获得多功能的棉布。在不改变棉布的吸油能力的前提下使其具有超疏水/亲油的表面,这将可能用于清理水面和水下的油性液体。Ag/AgBr-TiO2纳米复合材料对UV和可见光具有抵抗作用,这赋予了棉布优异的抗菌性和抗紫外线性。天然棉花具有多孔的纤维结构,其在水中可吸附金属离子。因此可以采用简单的化学气相沉积法(CVD)在碳化棉花(CC)上生长碳纳米管(CNTs)。表面改性技术可以使天然棉花生成具有低密度(0.27 g/cm3)、高比表面积(137 m2/g)和优良的导电性(3 S/cm)的层级结构。CNT-CC复合材料可作为水和固体-凝胶电解质基超级电容器的电极,并且当电流密度为1 mA/cm2 以及2.5 mA/cm2 时,该样品的比表面电容分别为1286 mF/cm2 、1286 mF/cm2。 为了提高CNT-CC复合材料单位体积的比表面电容,本文采用表面改性的方法在CNT表面通过苯胺(AN)的聚合反应生长了聚苯胺(PANI)纳米线。通过改变苯胺单体的浓度可以调节PANI在CNT-CC表面的沉积以及PANI/CNT-CC复合材料的密度以及电容。研究结果表明:在CNT-CC表面引入PANI后,复合材料的比表面电容增加了3倍以上(当电流密度为2mA/cm2时,比表面电容由1 F/cm2增加到3.1 F/cm2),此外材料的电磁屏蔽性能也有了很大提高。

文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.xjipc.cas.cn/handle/365002/4986
专题环境科学与技术研究室
作者单位中国科学院新疆理化技术研究所
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Md Masud Rana. Value-addition to Cotton Fabrics by Surface Modification for Advanced Applications[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学,2017.
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