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辐射环境下的微纳米器件可靠性变化机理与试验方法研究
周航
学位类型博士
导师余学峰
2017-05-27
学位授予单位中国科学院大学
学位授予地点北京
学位专业微电子学与固体电子学
关键词Cmos 热载流子 辐射效应 重离子辐照 Tddb
摘要

在空间应用中,小尺寸MOS器件面临着空间辐射环境与常规可靠性双重挑战。国内外对考虑空间辐射因素的微纳米器件可靠性研究,由于辐射损伤与常规可靠性共同作用于器件的复杂性,辐射与可靠型的相互作用机理还不清楚,目前工作主要集中在器件宏观电参数的测试与分析;对空间辐射效应、常规可靠性试验与评估都相互独立进行,没有考虑这种单一作用机制的判定标准有可能会造成对器件可靠性的乐观估计;更重要的是,辐射环境下的器件可靠性问题已经超出现行常规可靠性试验标准的约束条件,对星用器件常规可靠性评估方面,还存在着现行方法适用性的问题。针对辐照环境下微纳米器件可靠性存在的问题,我们选取了多个工艺节点的MOS器件为研究对象,对辐照环境下的微纳米器件常规可靠性试验方法、新的失效机理开展了比较全面与系统的研究。总剂量辐射环境下的微纳米器件可靠性变化机理方面,研究在器件尺寸、结构、工艺三个方向维度上展开:尺寸上,我们对微米、深亚微米与纳米三个工艺节点进行了机理上的分析;结构上,我们比较了长沟与短沟器件;工艺上,研究对象有加固与非加固器件。这些研究使得我们不仅获得了微纳米器件随着工艺进步的辐照环境下的可靠性变化趋势,而且获得了与沟道宽长比以及特殊工艺相关的影响机制。三个工艺节点的研究结果同时表明辐射会影响随后的热载流子可靠性,即使采用了LDD工艺抑制热载流子效应的商用器件在辐照后都表现出明显的热载流子损伤增强现象,比较明显的热载流子效应被重新激活,H栅的采用可以有效避免STI带来的损伤增强效应。此外,器件的泄露电流不仅仅由单一可靠性影响因子决定,沟道与栅极泄露电流的变化往往是二者共同作用下的结果。总剂量辐射环境下的微纳米器件可靠性新的试验方法方面,本文把总剂量效应导致的器件内部电场变化与微观参数变化考虑在内,是已有标准的扩展与补充,解决了在辐射环境热载流子试验的最劣偏置问题、泄露电流来源的问题以及如何避免产生新的失效机理问题,这些问题的考虑与解决使得新方法不局限于器件特定使用环境与工作状态。此外,区别于以往的单粒子效应研究,即单粒子翻转、单粒子瞬态、单粒子烧毁等易于观测到的电路或者器件辐射效应,我们还进行了重离子辐照后的深亚微米器件栅氧化层可靠性研究。结合重离子加速器束流大小,文中使用了较大栅氧面积的SOI工艺MIS电容作为试验器件,这使得我们在有限的辐照机时下取得了有重要意义的研究成果,简单可以表述为:重离子辐照对栅氧化层造成的潜在损伤大大降低了栅氧化层的TDDB寿命,这可能在器件使用过程中造成灾难性的影响,其次,不同工作状态下的器件损伤情况不同,我们提出了两种可能的损伤机理:位移能损造成的结构改变与电离能损引发的热电子碰撞损伤。综上所述,小尺寸MOS器件以其优良的抗辐射特性与集成度等特点成为了航天元器件的主流之一,然而辐射环境下的器件可靠性成为了制约其实际应用的潜在问题,本文对辐照环境下的微纳米器件可靠性方法与机理研究,使得对辐照环境下的器件可靠性变化有进一步的了解,对器件设计者提供有益参考,对航空电子系统长期可靠性提供风险预估。

其他摘要

The progress of aerospace science and technology put forward new requirements on the performance of the aerospace devices, which leads small size of micro/nano CMOS devices used in the space application stage. Feature dimension reduction brought chip performance boost, but inevitably led to a lot of conventional reliability problems than the big size devices, such as hot carrier effect and time dependent dielectric breakdown and negative (positive) bias instability and other conventional reliability problems.One can find a lot of research about radiation effect and conventional reliability of devices all over the world, space radiation effect, the conventional reliability test and evaluation methods are very mature technology, in space applications, the small size of MOS devices face space radiation environment and conventional reliability challenge at the same time, the reliability criteria to judge a single mechanism can cause components reliability optimistic. The research which consider space radiation factor of micro/nano devices reliability, due to the complexity of interactions between radiation and conventional reliability, radiation and reliable interaction mechanism is not clear, at present work mainly focused on the macro device electric parameter test and analysis.And, more importantly, the radiation environment of device reliability problems have been beyond the constraints of the current conventional reliability test standard, so, in conventional reliability assessment for devices used in the space environment, applicability problems still exist in the current method.For micro/nano device reliability problems under irradiation environment, we select a number of process nodes of MOS devices as the research object, the conventional reliability test methods of irradiated micro/nano devices and a new failure mechanism had conducted a more comprehensive and systematic study.New test method for the device take internal electric field change caused by the total dose effect, and the change of microscopic parameters into account, it is an extension of the existing standards and complement, it solved the worst bias problem of heat carrier in the radiation environment, problems of leakage current and how to avoid to produce new failure mechanism, the consideration of these questions and solution makes the new method is not limited to a specific device using the environment and working condition.Specific test section has three dimensions: Vertically, microns, deep sub-micron and nanometer technology nodes devices were used in our tests, horizontally, we adopted the irradiation and unirradiation device, long channel and the short channel one in the tests, vertically, commercial off-the-shelf and radiation hardening devices were used in our experiments.This makes it not only obtained with the reliability of the technological progress of irradiation environment change trend,, but also the impact of channel length and special process related.The results also show that the radiation will affect the subsequent hot carrier reliability, even with the LDD process improvement. And the results of commercial devices showed obvious enhanced hot carrier effect after irradiation. We find that H-gate adopted can effectively avoid the influences of STI.In addition, the components of leakage current is not determined by a single reliability factors, the channel and the change of the gate leakage current is often a result of a combination of radiation and conventional reliability.Different from the previous single event effect, namely, SEU, SET and SEGR which can easily observed in circuit or device heavy ion radiation effectc tests, MIS capacitors in SOI process with large gate oxide area were used as experimental devices in the article .It made us obtain significant achievement in limited radiation time, which could be simply described that latent damages caused by heavy iron on gate oxide reduced its TDDB lifetime considerably and might have catastrophic effects during the devices’ service process. Then we proposed two feasible damage mechanism.To sum up, the small size of MOS devices with its excellent characteristics such as resistance to radiation and integration make it became one of the mainstream of aerospace components, however, the conventional reliability of irradiated devices become the potential problems that can restrict the practical application of micro/nano devices.Our reasearch make the device reliability changes in irradiation environment has further understanding, provide beneficial reference to the device designers, provide risk forecast for the long-term reliability of avionics systems.

文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.xjipc.cas.cn/handle/365002/4965
专题材料物理与化学研究室
作者单位中国科学院新疆理化技术研究所
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周航. 辐射环境下的微纳米器件可靠性变化机理与试验方法研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学,2017.
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