XJIPC OpenIR  > 材料物理与化学研究室
科学级帧转移电荷耦合成像器件位移损伤效应与机理研究
曾骏哲
学位类型博士
导师郭旗
2017-05-27
学位授予单位中国科学院大学
学位授予地点北京
学位专业微电子学与固体电子学
关键词电荷耦合器件 位移损伤 位移缺陷 低温测试 仿真模拟
摘要

电荷耦合器件(Charge coupled device,CCD)是空间对地遥感、天基目标观测、宇宙天文观测领域应用的核心成像器件。然而,空间辐射环境是应用于空间的CCD面临的主要威胁,辐射环境中的高能粒子作用于CCD产生电离效应、位移损伤效应,可导致器件性能退化或功能失效,严重影响卫星和载荷的在轨性能与运行寿命。多年来,CCD的辐射效应与机理、试验评估方法和抗辐射加固技术一直是国内外的研究热点。目前在CCD电离效应研究方面,对机理的认识、试验评估方法的研究较深入,并已发展出有效的CCD抗电离辐射加固措施。但是在CCD位移损伤效应方面的研究相对来说尚不充分,体现在以下三方面:1)空间带电粒子(尤其是质子)入射CCD同时产生电离效应和位移损伤效应,目前缺少两种效应的分离测试及表征方法;2)对粒子入射后产生的位移缺陷、缺陷导致参数退化的物理仍缺乏深入分析。3)实际在轨运行时,CCD的位移损伤效应与环境温度、器件工作模式等因素有较强的依赖关系,目前在环境参数、工作模式对CCD位移损伤效应的影响方面仍有待深入认识。针对以上问题,本文从光电转换、电荷转移等器件工作物理过程入手,开展了电荷耦合成像器件位移损伤效应与机理的相关研究,主要包括电离效应和位移效应所致参数损伤的分离、位移损伤缺陷对参数的影响机制、工作环境和工作模式对敏感参数的影响机制三方面。首先,开展了电离效应和位移效应所致器件参数退化的分离测试方法研究,通过γ射线、中子和质子辐照和退火试验,分析了电离效应和位移损伤导致暗信号退化的机理,分析了γ射线诱发暗信号及其非均匀性退化的机理,获得使CCD电离效应退火的温度条件;得出质子辐照诱发位移缺陷导致的体暗信号增长,所占总体暗信号增长的比例。其次,开展了位移损伤缺陷导致CCD敏感参数退化的物理机理研究。分析了缺陷类型对不同光电参数影响的程度、原因及等效性,分析了平均体暗信号、电荷转移效率(CTE)的退化与位移损伤剂量的关系,分析了导致CTE退化的主要缺陷,获得了位移损伤缺陷类型的影响机制、位移损伤表征参数、位移损伤所致参数退化的经验拟合公式。然后,研究了工作环境和工作模式与辐射效应的相关性,通过辐照后CCD的不同温度下测试及退火测试,研究了体暗信号及其非均匀性、CTE的变化规律和原因,分析了缺陷退火对温度响应曲线的影响机理。主要研究结果如下:1. CCD辐照后经过100℃退火可基本消除电离效应的影响,能量小于23MeV的质子辐照后,CCD表面暗信号占总暗信号增长比例为70%-80%,磷空位(P-V)中心所致体暗信号占总体暗信号比例为30%。2. P-V中心是导致CTE退化的主要缺陷,光谱响应退化主要由位移效应引发,不同能量质子辐照对CTE的影响、质子和中子辐照导致体暗信号增大的机理是相同的,而暗信号非均匀性、热像素的增长与辐照粒子类型有显著的相关性。3. 低温下暗信号迅速下降,热像素减少,CTE的变化取决于辐照诱发的P-V中心;CTE随着势阱饱和度降低而明显下降,积分时间对CTE的影响较小。通过本文的研究,实现了电离效应和位移效应所致参数损伤的分离,完善了位移能量沉积和位移缺陷类型与参数之间的关联性,提供了位移损伤与敏感参数之间退化关系的分析方法,了解了工作环境和工作模式对辐射效应敏感参数的影响机制,验证了测试条件的变化对参数测试结果的重要性。此外,本文采用仿真手段与试验手段相结合的方法填补了国内相关方面研究的缺失,所得结果对抗辐射工艺的发展、辐射损伤评估方法和试验标准的建立提供了有力支持。

其他摘要

CCD(Charge coupled device)is a photoelectric detector with high performance and high reliability. It has been used widely in civil and military weather forecast, astronomy, earth observation, navigation since the system features have high quantum efficiency, high spatial resolution, large dynamic range and so on. Complex space radiation environment’s particle will pose a threat to the normal work of CCD and reduce its imaging quality and reliability, even disable the CCD, shorten the effective service life of satellite. So the high reliability and long life of the optical system has always been the pursuit of space exploration mission, the reinforcement principle and method of CCD in space radiation environment become a research hotspot in the field of radiation effect at home and abroad. Relative to the foreign research situation, in the domestic the mechanism of radiation effects on CCD is yet to be further understanding because the device performance constraint and research starts late.At present, the ionization effect research go deep in understanding of the mechanism and experiment evaluation methods, effective reinforcement measures of CCD resistance to ionizing radiation are developed. But CCD displacement damage effect research is relatively insufficient, embodied in the following three aspects: 1) Radiation effect: Space particles (especially proton) cause effects of ionization and displacement at the same time, the research at home or abroad are lack of separation of photoelectric parameters’ degradation caused by ionization and displacement effect. 2) Mechanism analysis: Defects caused by incident of the particles, the mechanism lead to parameters degree is yet to be in-depth research, the research on correlation of displacement damage defect number and parameter changes and mechanism of defect type affection to the parameter is lacked. 3) The factors influencing displacement damage: Working temperature variability in satellite will affect parameters, adopting different working temperature and working mode test methods further study on mechanism of displacement effect caused by the parameters change is lacked. In addition, with the manufacturing size of the CCD from deep submicron to very deep submicron, the number of pixel is higher, a variety of new CCD structure design, so a lot of new irradiation damage physical mechanism is introduced. It is need to be further researched urgently in the irradiation damage effect.In this paper, the main content is about the displacement damage effection and mechanism of CCD. Photoelectric parameters of the main research is about: the dark field test parameters is dark signal and dark signal nonuniformity, the parameters of the optical field test is CTE and spectral response, covering from the carrier generation, collection and transfer process.Gamma, neutron, proton and electron irradiation experiments were carried out, it is concluded that the sensitive parameters of ionization effection and displacement effection. With annealing process at room temperature, 100℃, 150℃ after radiation, Separate the damage of photoelectric parameters caused by ionization or displacement effect. Comparing the particles irradiation and annealing results, the effection and equivalence of defect types on photoelectric parameters, the dominated defects which effect on the dark signal and CTE, the displacement damage parameter fitting formula of degradation is studied. So the evaluation of CCD damage by different energy proton radiation can be extended to the wide proton energy spectrum in the natural space radiation environments.The numerical simulation of irradiated CCD was carried out. Calculating by monte carlo method software, the ionization energy deposition displacement energy deposition in the radiation sensitive area is known, the influence of different energy deposition on the electrical parameters is studied and the displacement energy deposition whether can be the important reference of degradation for sensitive parameters is analyzed. With a semiconductor device process simulation software, CCD pixels, structure and working process was simulated to study how the level and number of radiation induced body defect influence displacement damage sensitive parameters.The parameter testing under different test conditions is carried out. The impact of changing the saturation degree of potential well and the integral time on CTE is studied. CCD before and after annealing is used for the different test temperature testing(from -70℃ to 20℃), the reason of bulk dark signal and CTE changed by testing temperature and the differences of those curves are studied.1) Annealing at 100℃ after irradiation will eliminate the influence of ionization effect to CCD. After irradiated by proton energy lower than 23MeV, growing ratio of surface dark signal is 70&080% to total dark signal. The bulk dark signal caused by P-V defect is 30% to bulk signal. 2) P-V defect is the most effective defect to CTE degradation. The degradation of spectral response is caused by displacement effect. The influence of different energy of proton irradiation on the CTE and the mechanism of proton and neutron irradiation on mean bulk dark signal are the same, but dark signal uniformity, hot pixels are more remarkable correlation to the type of irradiation particle. 3) With the testing temperature lower, dark signal drops rapidly and numbers of hot pixels reduce, but change of CTE depends on the irradiation induced P-V defect. CTE reduced significantly lower with less potential well saturation, integral time have less effect on the CTE.In summary, this paper realized the separation of ionization damage and displacement damage in the CCD’s parameters, perfected the correlation the displacement energy deposition and defect types with parameters, provided the analysis methods of degradation relationship between the displacement damage and sensitive parameters, verified importance of changing test conditions effecting on the parameter test result. In addition, the effect of radiation on CCD’s spectral response and the method combining simulation method with test filled the related research deficiencies of CCD radiation effects. The previous research resluts are summarized, and further promote the refinement, and provide ideas and guidance for further research in the next step.

文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.xjipc.cas.cn/handle/365002/4961
专题材料物理与化学研究室
作者单位中国科学院新疆理化技术研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
曾骏哲. 科学级帧转移电荷耦合成像器件位移损伤效应与机理研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学,2017.
条目包含的文件
文件名称/大小 文献类型 版本类型 开放类型 使用许可
科学级帧转移电荷耦合成像器件位移损伤效应(3212KB)学位论文 开放获取CC BY-NC-SA浏览 请求全文
个性服务
推荐该条目
保存到收藏夹
查看访问统计
导出为Endnote文件
谷歌学术
谷歌学术中相似的文章
[曾骏哲]的文章
百度学术
百度学术中相似的文章
[曾骏哲]的文章
必应学术
必应学术中相似的文章
[曾骏哲]的文章
相关权益政策
暂无数据
收藏/分享
文件名: 科学级帧转移电荷耦合成像器件位移损伤效应与机理研究.pdf
格式: Adobe PDF
此文件暂不支持浏览
所有评论 (0)
暂无评论
 

除非特别说明,本系统中所有内容都受版权保护,并保留所有权利。