XJIPC OpenIR  > 环境科学与技术研究室
功能型棉纤维材料的制备及其油水分离性能研究
陈军腾
Thesis Advisor马鹏程
2016-05-24
Degree Grantor中国科学院大学
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Name硕士
Degree Discipline材料工程
Keyword棉布纺织物 表面处理 亲水疏油材料 油水分离
Abstract

围绕亲水疏油型油-水分离材料的设计、制备以及应用等科学问题的研究,对提高环境资源利用效率、实现水体污染物的有效治理具有重要意义。本论文以商业棉布为原料,通过简单地聚合物表面涂覆法制备出具有不同功能性质的棉纤维复合材料,并研究了所得材料的油-水分离性能。研究内容包括以下三个方面:1.pH和温度响应性棉布。以商业棉布为基底,通过引发N-异丙基丙烯酰胺(NIPAM)和丙烯酸(AA)单体发生共聚反应,在棉纤维表面涂覆了一层聚合物薄膜(PNIPAAm-b-PAA)。研究结果表明涂覆有聚合物的棉布对不同pH值和温度的水溶液具有双重响应性,且具有超亲水-水下超疏油的表面特性,可高效分离含浮油和分散油的原油-水混合物。2.纤维素-棉布复合膜的制备及性能研究。以α-纤维素和商业棉布为原料,通过纤维素的溶解和再生过程并结合涂覆-凝固法,制备出了纤维素-棉布复合膜。研究结果表明α-纤维素在溶解-再生过程中部分转化为β-纤维素,复合膜的力学性能得到显著改善。油水分离实验结果显示该复合膜可以有效分离辛烷-水、甲苯-水、氯仿-水等水包油型乳化液。3.以制备的纤维素-棉布复合膜为核心材料,设计出一种新型油水分离器。该装置主要由进液器、储液箱、过滤器、真空辅助系统和排水系统等五部分组成。在真空泵的辅助作用下,该装置可对含不同行业油水混合物以及含分散油和乳化油的油-水混合体系进行持续、快速、高效分离。

Other Abstract

Materials with hydrophilic and oleophobic properties play an important role for enhancing the utilization of natural resources and removing oily pollutants in water. This thesis focuses on the development of cotton-based membranes with multi-functional properties by using commercial cotton fabrics as raw material. Smart cotton fabrics and cellulose-cotton membrane were prepared through a simple surface coating process, and the feasibility of employing the developed fabrics for oil-water separation was studied. The thesis was structured by the following three chapters: 1. Smart cotton fabric with response to pH and temperature was prepared by applying a thin layer of copolymer coating originated from N-isopropylacrylamide and acrylic acid. the fabric showed dual responses to the acidity and temperature of solution, as well as superhydrophilic and underwater superoleophobic properties. The fabrics can efficiently separate floating oil and dispersed oil droplets in crude oil-water mixture.2. Cellulose-cotton fabric composite membrane was fabricated by coating α-cellulose on cotton fabric through the dissolution-regeneration of cellulose in water. The results confirmed that the α-cellulose was converted to β-one after coating onto cotton fabrics. The coating led to the significant enhancement on the mechanical properties of cotton fabrics, and the composite membrane can effectively separate emulsified oil droplets in emulsion system like octane-water, toluene-water and chloroform-water mixtures. 3. By using cellulose-cotton fabric composite membrane as a key material, a prototype oil-water separator was developed. The system consists of feeding part, oil-collector, filration membrane, vacuum chamber and water discharging parts. With assistance of vacuum pump, the designed separator can separate oil-water mixtures with dispersed and emusified oil droplets with a high efficiency.

Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.xjipc.cas.cn/handle/365002/4574
Collection环境科学与技术研究室
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
陈军腾. 功能型棉纤维材料的制备及其油水分离性能研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学,2016.
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