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骆驼刺花瓣化学成分研究
郭丹
学位类型硕士
导师邹国安
2016-06-03
学位授予单位中国科学院大学
学位授予地点北京
学位专业药物化学
关键词骆驼刺花瓣 化学成分 分离纯化 结构鉴定 降糖活性
摘要

骆驼刺(Alhagi sparsifolia Shap.)是豆科(Leguminosae)骆驼刺属植物,多年生草本或半灌木植物,广泛分布于哈萨克斯坦、乌兹别克斯坦、吉尔吉斯斯坦、土库曼斯坦、塔吉克斯坦等中亚国家的干旱地带,在我国主产于内蒙古、甘肃、青海和新疆,常用于治疗发热、风湿病、腹泻、胃痛、头痛、牙痛、癌症等,为维吾尔医常用药。骆驼刺经文献报道含有儿茶素、原花青素、香豆素、黄酮、甾醇、生物碱等化合物。新疆维吾尔族人有食用骆驼刺花酱的习俗,具有抗癌、增强免疫力等功效,关于骆驼刺花瓣的化学成分,目前尚未见系统研究报道,因此,为了更深入的了解骆驼刺花瓣生物活性的作用物质基础,更加丰富维吾尔药用植物生物活性成分,我们对骆驼刺花瓣提取物的化学成分进行了系统深入的研究。对骆驼刺干燥花瓣的75%乙醇提取物进行了系统研究,对其二氯甲烷和乙酸乙酯部位利用硅胶柱色谱、Sephadex LH-20分子排阻色谱、制备型高效液相色谱、重结晶等分离纯化手段得到了20个化合物,通过与对照品对照、理化常数测定和波谱数据分析等方法,鉴定了其中17个化合物,分别为11个黄酮:丁香黄素(syringetin,1),异鼠李素(isorhamnetin,2),槲皮素(quercetin,3),山奈酚(kaempferol,4),异槲皮苷(isoquercitrin,5),山奈酚-7-O-β-D-葡萄糖苷(kaempferol-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside,6),异鼠李素-3-O-β-D-葡萄糖苷(isorhamnetin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside,7),山奈酚-3-O-β-D-半乳糖苷(kaempferol-3-O-β-D-galactopyranoside,8),山奈酚-3-O-β-D-葡萄糖苷(kaempferol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside,9),异鼠李素-3-O-β-D-芸香糖苷(isorhamnetin-3-O-β-D-rutinoside,10),异鼠李素-3-O-β-D-半乳糖(6→1)鼠李糖苷(isorhamnetin-3-O-β-D-galactosyl-(6→1)-α-L-rhamnoside,11);2个异黄酮:染料木素(genistein,12),染料木苷(genistin,13);3个酚酸:异香兰酸(isovanillic acid,14),龙胆酸(gentisic acid,15),没食子酸(gallic acid,16);1个脂肪醇:二十七烷醇(heptacosan-1-ol,17)。其中化合物1, 12, 13, 14和15均为首次从该属植物中分离得到,化合物16和17为首次从该植物中分离得到。本文还对骆驼刺花瓣石油醚、二氯甲烷、乙酸乙酯及正丁醇各萃取部位的抗菌及降糖活性进行了初步的研究,发现骆驼刺花瓣各萃取部位均有不同程度的降糖活性,而且有良好的抗菌活性。这是首次发现骆驼刺属植物具有降糖活性,为其开发成疗效显著、作用稳定、不良反应少的中药制剂及保健品提供理论依据与技术支撑。

其他摘要

Alhagi sparsifolia Shap. (Leguminosae) is a perennial herbal or semi-shrub that is mainly distributed in desert zones of Central Asia, such as Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. It is mainly spread through in Gansu, Inner Mongolia and Qinghai Provinces, and Xinjiang Autonomous Region of China. It is a traditional Uyghur medicinal plant for the treatment of fever, rheumatism, diarrhea, stomachache, headache, toothache, and cancer. Catechins, proanthocyanidins, coumarins, flavonoids, sterols and alkaloids were reported previously in this plant. Its flowers are commonly used to make flowers sauce for Uyghur people to eat. In order to further study the effective substance basis in flowers of Alhagi sparsifolia, and enrich more biological active ingredients of the Uygur medicinal plants, we deeply researched on the chemical constituents from flowers of Alhagi sparsifolia.From the 75% EtOH extract of the dried flowers of Alhagi sparsifolia, 20 compounds were isolated by silica gel chromatography, sephadex LH-20 chromatography preparative high performance liquid chromatography (PHPLC) and recrystallized methods. Based on comparison with reference substance, physico-chemical constants measurement and spectroscopic data analyses , among which, 17 compounds compounds were identified as follows: 11 Flavonoids: syringetin (1), isorhamnetin (2), quercetin (3), kaempferol (4), isoquercitrin (5), kaempferol-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (6), isorhamnetin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (7), kaempferol-3-O-β-D-galactopyranoside (8), kaempferol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (9), isorhamnetin-3-O-β-D-rutinoside (10), isorhamnetin-3-O-β-D-galactosyl-(6?1)-α-L-rhamnoside (11); 2 Isoflavonoids: genistein (12), genistin (13); 3 Phenolic acids: isovanillic acid (14), gentisic acid (15), gallic acid (16); 1 Fatty alcohol: heptacosan-1-ol (17). Compounds 1, 12, 13, 14, and 15 were isolated from plants of the genus Alhagi for the first time, and compound 16 and 17 was firstly isolated from the plant Alhagi sparsifolia. We also preliminarily studied on the antibacterial and antidiabetic activities of 4 extractive fractions (petroleum ether, dichloromethane, EtOAc and n-BuOH fractions) from flowers of Alhagi sparsifolia. Finally, we found different fractions played different antidiabetics activities, with good antibacterial activity. This is the first time we found that plants of the genus Alhagi showed antidiabetics activities, which provides theory foundation and technology support for developing stable, significant effect and less adverse reactions of Traditional Chinese medicine preparations and health products.

文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.xjipc.cas.cn/handle/365002/4560
专题资源化学研究室
作者单位中国科学院新疆理化技术研究所
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郭丹. 骆驼刺花瓣化学成分研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学,2016.
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