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CMOS图像传感器辐射效应的测试技术
王帆
学位类型硕士
导师郭旗
2016-05-26
学位授予单位中国科学院大学
学位授予地点北京
学位专业微电子与固体电子学
关键词Cmos图像传感器 测试方法 辐射效应 电离总剂量效应 位移损伤效应 Rts噪声
摘要

当前应用的主流可见光图像传感器主要分为两类,电荷耦合器件(Charge-Coupled Device, CCD)和互补金属氧化物半导体(Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor, CMOS)图像传感器。2000年以前,几乎所有空间应用中都使用的是CCD图像传感器,但近些年随着半导体工艺和CMOS图像传感器技术的发展,尤其在采用4T像素钳位二极管(Pinned PhotoDiode, PPD)和相关双采样(Correlated Double Sampling, CDS)技术后,CMOS图像传感器的成像性能已经可以比拟甚至超过CCD图像传感器,且由于CMOS图像传感器有高集成度,低功耗,充足的设计资源和制造工艺成本低等优势,CMOS图像传感器在空间领域应用中代替CCD图像传感器已经成为了一种趋势。目前,CMOS图像传感器在空间应用涉及地球勘测、遥感成像、星敏感器等星图像采集功能和飞船可视系统等空间探测、导航领域。然而,由于CMOS图像传感器的高集成性,其芯片内部既有光电转换单元,又有放大电路,模数转换和寄存器等模拟数字电路单元,因此宇宙空间辐射环境对CMOS图像传感器造成的影响也要比CCD和其他半导体器件更加多样复杂,这会给器件的空间应用评估带来巨大的挑战。现在CMOS图像传感器的辐射效应研究还处于起步阶段,尚未有完整的评估方法,因此建立一套CMOS图像传感器辐射敏感参数测试方法,分析其辐射损伤效应,然后对工程评估应用中敏感参数的选择提出指导是目前十分迫切的需求。本论文首先基于工业CMOS图像传感器测试标准,结合不同类型的辐照试验,对CMOS图像传感器辐射敏感参数的测试方法进行了研究。研究包括转换增益,满阱容量,暗电流,暗电流非均匀性等参数,介绍了以上参数的测试原理、方法和针对辐照后某些参数测试的改进,并通过对像素灰度值的重新排序原创性的提出了一种图像传感器RTS噪声测试方法。最后基于Matlab GUI编写了测试程序,通过软件具体实现了CMOS图像传感器的辐射敏感参数测试。其次,在测试方法研究的基础上,通过对不同的CMOS图像传感器进行总剂量和质子辐照试验,开展了CMOS图像传感器辐射效应方面的研究。着重分析了CMOS图像传感器转换增益,满阱容量,暗电流等辐照敏感参数随辐照总剂量(或质子注量)的变化关系,深入解释了参数退化原因。分析了4T像素结构CMOS图像传感器的总剂量辐照偏置效应,发现并解释了其与3T像素结构CMOS图像传感器不同。最后还对质子辐照导致的商用CMOS图像传感器RTS噪声进行了初步的研究,并分析了RTS噪声与曝光时间和热像素之间的关系。最后,本论文对4T像素结构的CMOS图像传感器进行了-40℃到80℃变温实验,获得了器件的温度变化规律,并分析了传感器功能参数随温度变化的物理机理,结合辐射效应方面的研究,可以为先进CMOS图像传感器在空间中的应用提供进一步指导。综上所述,本文结合国际关注热点,从工程应用需求出发,以不同的CMOS图像传感器为依托,对CMOS图像传感器辐射敏感参数测试方法,辐射效应和温度效应进行了研究。其不但为CMOS图像传感器辐射下的应用评估提供技术支撑,而且可以为器件设计、生产单位提供理论指导。

其他摘要

Visible image sensors are mainly divided into two categories, charge coupled devices (Device Charge-Coupled, CCD) and complementary metal oxide field effect transistor image sensor. 2000 years ago, almost all of the space application are used is CCD image sensor, but in recent years, with the development of semiconductor technology and CMOS image sensor technology, the imaging performance of the CMOS image sensor can match or even exceed the CCD image sensor, and due to CMOS image sensors have a high degree of integration, low power consumption, plenty of design resources and the manufacture cost low, CMOS image sensor in space applications instead of CCD image sensor has become a trend. Currently, CMOS image sensor in space applications involving the earth survey, remote sensing imaging, star sensor image acquisition function and the spacecraft visual system, such as space exploration, navigation. However, due to the high integration of CMOS image sensor, the damage caused by the space radiation environment on the CMOS image sensor is more complicated than that of the CCD and other semiconductor devices, which will seriously affect the application of the space and assessment. Now the radiation effects of CMOS image sensor research is still in its initial stage, there is no complete radiation damage assessment method, therefore, the establishment of a CMOS image sensor testing method, analysis the radiation effects, and then to the project evaluation selection of sensitive parameters in the application of forward guidance is the urgent demand.In this paper, first based on industrial CMOS image sensor testing standards and combined with the irradiation test of different types, we studied CMOS image sensor radiation effect measurement methods. Study includes the conversion gain, full well capacity and dark current and dark current nonuniformity parameters, introduces the above parameters of the test principle, methods and an image sensor RTS noise test method is proposed. Finally, the test program is compiled based on GUI Matlab, and the radiation effect parameter test of CMOS image sensor is realized by software.Secondly, based on the test method, the radiation effect of CMOS image sensor is studied by the total dose and the proton irradiation test on different CMOS image sensors. Explains the reasons for the degradation of the parameters, and analyzes the effect of the total dose radiation bias of the CMOS image sensor. In the end, the RTS noise of commercial CMOS image sensor caused by proton irradiation is studied.Finally, this paper also study the temperature effect on 4T CMOS image sensor, and analyzes the physical mechanism of parameters change with temperature, combined with the radiation effects research, which can provide further guidance for the application of advanced CMOS image sensor in space.To sum up, combined the focus of international, taken from the engineering application needs, and based on different CMOS image sensor, the thesis researches the test methods and radiation effects. So this is not only useful for evaluation and application of analog circuit in space, but also helpful for design of radiation hardness device.

文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.xjipc.cas.cn/handle/365002/4554
专题材料物理与化学研究室
作者单位中国科学院新疆理化技术研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
王帆. CMOS图像传感器辐射效应的测试技术[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学,2016.
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