XJIPC OpenIR  > 多语种信息技术研究室
面向学科的教学资源知识地图构建关键技术研究
王晓博
学位类型博士
导师李晓
2016-05-29
学位授予单位中国科学院大学
学位授予地点北京
学位专业计算机应用技术
关键词教学资源库 学科知识 本体 知识地图
摘要

随着信息技术、互联网技术的飞速发展,互联网上已存在着大量分散无序、形式多样、内容繁杂的网络资源和教学资源。在教学资源的建设和管理方面存在着:资源良莠不齐、重复建设、未有效管理、资源检索结果不理想、资源未有效共享和应用等现象,严重影响了教学资源价值的真正发挥。因此如何加强对教学资源的有效组织和管理,使资源得以合理组织、高效利用、充分共享,成为一个值得关注的重要问题。教学资源作为支撑教学活动、改进教学方法、优化教学效果的基本要素和条件,逐渐成为一个关注的研究领域。少数民族双语教育工作是我国教育工作的重要组成部分。双语教育对促进少数民族地区社会经济发展、保障社会稳定有着重要意义。目前全国大部分省区都建立了教育资源服务平台,新疆也建立了面向全疆教师的双语教育资源云服务平台。存在着教师们如何在这些海量教学资源信息中快捷检索、高效应用教学资源的应用需求。面向学科知识的教学资源库能够把教学资源的有效利用和教学过程紧密的结合起来,不但拓展了现有教学资源管理功能,更有利于对知识进行有效地获取、存储、检索、应用和共享等,将教学资源与教学、教师学生整合为一个动态的知识体系,使之能够达到教学服务效果最佳化,而且还为显隐性知识的转化、共享和创新提供有效的途径。知识地图能够将知识管理活动中的主体、资源及相互关系链接起来形成一种动态的网络结构,是一个可视化、智能的知识管理工具。由于海量信息、信息的无序性和知识活动的活跃性增加了知识获取的难度。就要从课程、学科领域分析获取知识,建立面向学科的教学资源知识地图,可以基于学科知识对教学资源进行知识获取、挖掘,发现两者间的关联,促进学科知识和教学资源的共享、交流,实现基于内容的资源智能检索与推荐。目前面向学科的教学资源知识地图还未见报道。对基于面向学科的教学资源知识地图的教学资源库建设与管理进行了研究,对学科知识表达、教学资源中学科知识获取、面向学科的教学资源知识地图构建关键技术进行了详细的分析和研究,结合新疆双语教育资源库的智能检索与推荐功能做了应用验证。在学科知识表达方面,引入本体技术、结合本体的统一性、规范性、可共享性等优点,拟从课程、学科知识入手,依据本体构建流程、本体描述语言,确定了学科知识本体构建方法,从知识工程角度构建学科知识本体库。在教学资源知识获取方面,针对结构化数据和非结构化数据进行知识获取。分析各类教学资源主题网站,采用主题爬行技术获取数据,对获取的文档进行解析,数据清洗后获取知识。采用基于规则的方法进行教学资源数据自动采集与清洗来获取网页中的正文内容信息,对这些文本内容进行学科知识获取。并分析了用户的Web资源知识获取行为和多用户协同的知识获取行为。在面向学科的教育资源知识地图构建关键技术研究方面:学科知识主要来源于非结构化资源数据,这类数据包括各类教学大纲、教案、教学设计等文本类资源。因此需要研究文本聚类技术,以有效获取学科知识。针对文本类资源聚类,研究了文本相似度计算模型并加以改进,文本资源主题主要由资源的关键词、摘要(或资源描述)描述,提出了基于关键词和摘要(或资源描述)加权的文本相似度计算模型,提高了文本聚类的有效性。提出了基于概念图的教育资源聚类方法,实验结果较其它聚类方法有效,但是对领域概念字典的依赖性比较大,相关参数设置时主观性较强。研究了最佳聚类数目的确定方法,本文通过聚类有效性评价方法中基于熵的方法和基于混合F统计量的方法进行了比较。通过实验验证在文本聚类中最佳类别数目的确定方面基于混合F统计量的方法更优。文档聚类存在高维稀疏的问题,因此需要进行降维处理。在对各种聚类中降维处理技术比较研究的基础上,确定采用基于主成份分析的降维处理方法,实验验证该方法在文档聚类降维处理方面有很好的效果。提出了学科知识地图理论模型,学科知识地图能够改变学科知识目录式的检索方式为可视化的图形检索方式,能够使教学资源的检索行为更为直观、有效。对新疆双语教育资源库资源检索与推荐功能方面实验应用,达到了应用效果,验证了本文所提理论方法的有效性。

其他摘要

With the rapid development of information technology, the Internet already exists a large number of teaching resources disorderly dispersed. The current teaching resources due to the wide variety of sources, forms, content complicated, there are resources such as good and bad in the construction and management, redundant construction, management turmoil and other issues, a serious impact on the effective use of teaching resources and values of real play. The current network teaching resources management still remains in the information, resources management, how to strengthen the network of educational resources organization and management, to make rational use of resources, full sharing has become an important issue of concern. Teaching resources to support teaching and learning activities as the basic elements and conditions, has become a new field of research.Party and the country attaches great importance to minority bilingual education, bilingual education for ethnic minorities to promote social and economic development, ensuring social stability is of great significance. Currently most of the provinces and autonomous regions have established their own educational resource service platform, Xinjiang has established for teachers Xinjiang provincial education resource cloud services platform. There are application requirements that teachers how to find what they need in this vast amount of teaching resources information and efficient use of teaching resources. Knowledge-oriented teaching resource library able to closely combine the effective use of teaching resources and teaching process, teaching resources and teachers and students will be integrated into a dynamic knowledge system, not only to expand the existing information management capabilities, more conducive to knowledge effectively capture, store, retrieve, use and sharing, to enable it to achieve the best results of the teaching service, but also provides an effective way for the transformation of explicit tacit knowledge sharing and innovation. Knowledge Map is an intelligent knowledge management tools, the ability to knowledge management activities in the subject, the relationship between resources and link together to form a dynamic variable network structure. As knowledge management activities activity leads to an infinite mass of information flow, the disorder of information increases the difficulty of knowledge acquisition. From the course and subject, access to subject knowledge, we establish teaching resources knowledge map for the subject. Based on subject knowledge to teaching resources knowledge acquisition, mining, reveal associated subject knowledge and teaching resources, to facilitate the sharing of subject knowledge and teaching resources, communication, content-based resource intelligent search and recommendation. Currently teaching resources for the subject knowledge map has not been reported.Analysis the existing problems of teaching resource construction and management. Subject knowledge representation, knowledge acquisition from subject teaching resources, subject-oriented teaching resources Knowledge Map builds the essential technologies for a detailed analysis and research. Bilingual education combined repository of intelligent search and recommendation capabilities to do the application verification.In terms of subject knowledge representation, we introduce ontology technology, and combined with the unity of the ontology, standardization, etc. can be shared. Proposed curriculum, subject knowledge, and build processes based on ontology, ontology description language, determine the subject knowledge ontology construction method. We construct of subject knowledge ontologies from an engineering perspective.In the teaching resources of knowledge acquisition, we obtain subject knowledge from structured data and unstructured data. Analysis of various types of teaching resources theme of the site, the use of topic crawling technology to obtain data, parsing the document acquired, the acquisition of knowledge after data cleaning. In terms of data collection and cleaning of the proposed heuristic rules based Internet data collection and automatic cleaning method that can automatically obtain the information page text content, based on the content of the Chinese offers the possibility of knowledge and learning.And analyzes the user's Web resources, knowledge acquisition behavior and multi-user collaborative knowledge acquisition behavior.Construction of key technology research subject-oriented Educational Resources Knowledge Map. Subject knowledge comes mainly from the resources of unstructured data, such data include all types of curricula, lesson plans, teaching design, text class resources. Therefore we need to study the text clustering technology to effectively acquire subject knowledge.We studied the document similarity computing model and make improvements, consider keywords and abstract terms with certain documents relating to the contribution of proposed keywords and word summary document based on weighted similarity calculation model, the similarity calculation more accurately, to improve the documentation the effectiveness of clustering.Proposed educational resource metadata clustering method, the experimental results than other clustering method is effective, but the concept of field dependence is relatively large dictionary, where relevant parameter settings subjectivity. Research on the method of determining the optimal number of clusters. In this paper, the entropy-based approach and a comparative study hybrid F-statistics-based approach was adopted. Experiments by mixing F statistic method based on document clustering categories to determine the optimal number of art has a better performance. In-depth study based on the technique of reducing dimension principal component document clustering and clustering results visualization. Document Clustering is a high-dimensional clustering, dimension reduction is a key technical document clustering. Based on the comparative study of various clustering technology, we focus on the dimension reduction technique based on principal component analysis, an example of this technique verified by experiments, and achieved good dimension reduction document clustering. Based on the topic of subject knowledge map building explored. The introduction of teaching class thesauri, subject knowledge map theoretical model be proposed. Subject knowledge map enables subject knowledge retrieving the directory structure of the formula into a visual way node graph search methods, enabling retrieval behavior teaching resources more intuitive and effective. For Xinjiang Bilingual Education Resource Library experiments be applicated in resource repository search and recommendation functions, reaching the application results verify the theoretical method proposed in this paper.

文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.xjipc.cas.cn/handle/365002/4553
专题多语种信息技术研究室
作者单位中国科学院新疆理化技术研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
王晓博. 面向学科的教学资源知识地图构建关键技术研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学,2016.
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