|Place of Conferral||北京|
1．相同土壤质地、灌水量条件下，而播种深度为0~4.0cm（0.5cm梯度）、0~2.0cm（0.2cm梯度）条件下，天山雪莲种子的发芽率随着播种深度增加而呈现先增加后明显降低的现象。播种深度为1.0cm时，天山雪莲种子的发芽势（达25%）和发芽率（达47%）最高；播种深度为1.5 cm时次之，其发芽势和发芽率分别为7%和26%；播种深度为0.5~3.0 cm时，天山雪莲的发芽率介于7%~44%之间；而播种深度4.0cm时，其发芽率最低，仅为1%。 2. 在一年生长周期内，相同海拔高度下天山雪莲中总黄酮和多糖含量随月份的增加总体呈下降趋势。 在低海拔地区，天山雪莲中的总黄酮和多糖的含量回升期分别为6月份和7月份。低海拔地区，5月份之前总黄酮的含量表现为最高，达5.27%。5月份之后，总黄酮的含量随叶片面积和干物质含量的增加而呈下降趋势。6月份开始，天山雪莲中总黄酮含量回升，高峰期含量达2.27%。进入7月份后，天山雪莲植株处于第二次生长高峰，营养物质主要供给植株的高、径生长，而用于合成次生代谢物的底物减少，致使叶片中黄酮类化合物的含量逐渐降低。9月份后，黄酮含量略有提高，为1.46%。 在低海拔地区，在生长周期内天山雪莲中多糖含量具有明显的动态变化，变化幅度介于8.13％~9.79％之间。一年中有两个高峰期，分别为6月和8月, 以6月的峰值为最高。进入5月份，天山雪莲中多糖含量逐渐升高；进入6月份，天山雪莲中多糖含量开始下降；进入7月份，天山雪莲中多糖含量缓慢上高；秋末冬初气温下降,天山雪莲中多糖含量逐渐下降。 3．天山雪莲中总黄酮的含量随着天山雪莲生长年限的增加而有所增加，4年生天山雪莲中总黄酮的含量比1年生的增加了14.94%；而绿原酸的含量随着天山雪莲生长年限的增加总体上呈现增加，3年生天山雪莲中绿原酸含量最高，增加幅度为16.38%，而4年生天山雪莲中绿原酸的含量比1年生的增加了0.56%。 4．天山雪莲中化学成分含量随刈割茬次或刈割次数增加变化较大。天山雪莲中黄酮含量随刈割茬次的增加呈递减趋势，而其多糖含量随刈割茬次的增加总体呈现增加。 5．天山雪莲的种子发芽最适温度为20~25℃；幼苗可塑性强，通过抗寒煅炼可使幼苗忍耐0~5℃的低温且可持续较长一段时间；根系生长最适温度5~22℃，0℃时根系吸收肥水受阻。天山雪莲在种子萌发期和幼苗期对水分要求较高，蒸腾作用强烈，耗水分较多，雪莲幼苗期保水性差，空气湿度保持在60％以上为宜。 6. 天山雪莲幼苗对光照要求不高，属于短光照作物，尤其在强光照下生长反应不良。
To investigate the problems of artificial planting Saussurea involucrata in low altitude region, Saussurea involucrata seeds collected form the alpine meadow cliffs stone gap in Xinjiang Hejing were used in the experiments. Small-scale experiments and field planting experiments were carried out in Xinjiang Technology Institute of Physical and Chemical and Anningqu in Urumqi, respectively. Based on the laboratory experiment, field investigation and planting demonstration, the biologicalcharacteristics,change of chemical constitution (change with time and cutting times) and planting technique of S.involucrata in low altitude region(600 ~ 800 m) have been investigated. The standardized planting procedure of S.involucrata was obtained from the studies above. We hope that these results can provide theory basis for utilization and protection of S.involucrata. The main results are as follows: 1. Under the same conditions of soil texture, irrigation and sowing depth ranging 0-4.0cm (0.5cm gradient) or 0-2.0cm (0.2cm gradient), the germination rate of theS. involucrata seeds decreases with increasing sowing depth. The germination potential (25%) and germination rate (47%) of S. involucrata seed could reach the maximum at the sowing depth of 1.0 cm. Second only to the sowing depth of 1.0 cm, at the sowing depth of 1.5 cm, the germination potential and germination rate of S. involucrata seed could reach 7% and 26% respectively. At the sowing depth of 0.5 ~ 3.0 cm, the germination rate of S. involucrata is ranged 7%~44%, and the lowest germination rate is only 1% at sowing depth of 4.0cm. 2. In a growth cycle of a year, the total content of flavonoids and polysaccharides of S. involucrata represent downward trend with the month increase at the same altitude. At low altitudes, the total content of flavonoids and polysaccharides of S. involucrata rebounds in June and July. The highest total content of flavonoids is 5.27% before May. After that, the total content of flavonoids deceases with increasing the leaf area and dry matter content. The total content of flavonoids of S. involucrata rises to 2.27%. The second growth period of S.involucratais July. During the period, nutrient are mainly supplied to plants to grow higher and stronger, while the nutrient for synthesis of secondary metabolites is small, which make the flavonoids content of leaves decreased. In September, the flavonoid content increases slightly, and it can be reach to 1.46%. At low altitudes, the polysaccharides content ofS. involucrata has a significant dynamic change ranging 8.13% ~ 9.79% in growth cycle. The two peak periods in a year are June and August respectively. The highest peak period is June. The polysaccharide content of S. involucrata increases gradually, and it begin to decline in June. In July, the polysaccharide content of S. involucrata increasesslowly. With the temperature dropping in late autumn and early winter, the polysaccharide content is gradually declining. 3. The total content of flavonoids of S. involucrata increases with the increase of S. involucrata growing years. The total content of flavonoids of 4-years plants increases 14.94% compared to the 1-year plants. The chlorogenic acid content of S. involucrata increases with the increase of S.involucrata growing years. The chlorogenic acid content of 3-years of S. involucrata is the highest, which the rate of increase is16.38%. The chlorogenic acid content of 4-years plant of S. involucrata rises 0.56% compared to 1-year plant of S.involucrata. 4. The chemical composition of S. involucrata changes significantly with the increase of cutting times. The total flavonoids content of S.involucratapresents downward trend with the increase of cutting times. 5. The optimal temperature for S. involucrata seed germination is from 20℃ to 25℃. Seedlings have great plasticity, and they can endure the low temperature of 0 ~ 5 ℃ for a long time after Cold- tolerance training. The optimal temperature of root growth is from 5℃ to 22℃. Absorbing fertilizer could be blocked at 0℃. S. involucrata require more moisture in the period of seed germination and young seedling, mainly due to strong transpiration, consuming a lot of water and poor water retention. The best air humidity is higher than 60%. 6. TheS. involucrata is belong to the crop of short photoperiod, and it do not ask for much light, furthermore the strong light is bad for S. involucrata growth.
|努尔波拉提阿依达尔汗. 低海拔天山雪莲生物学特性、有效成分及栽培的研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2012.|
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