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新疆彩棉色素决定基因的遗传分析、初步定位和QTL分析
王利祥
学位类型硕士
导师李晓波
2012-06
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业有机化学
关键词彩棉 遗传特性 遗传多样性 初步定位 Qtl
摘要天然彩色棉是在棉纤维发育过程中天然形成色素,目前主要有棕色和绿色。天然彩色棉纤维因其独特的自然色彩,在加工过程中无需染色,因此减少了对环境的污染;其加工成的内衣,手感柔软,穿着舒适,不含残留化学毒素,不会对人体健康产生危害。新疆自20世纪90年代从国外引入彩棉品种,至今已成为世界最大的彩棉生产基地和原料输出地。目前可通过彩棉同优良农艺性状的白色棉进行杂交、回交、聚合杂交、三系杂交等技术手段,来提高彩棉纤维品质,通过多年的自然和人工定向选育优良品种,彩棉纤维品质已得到了明显改善,但天然彩色棉的纤维品质与白色棉仍存在一定的差距,主要表现在纤维马克隆值偏低,纤维偏细,强度低。这些因素都制约着彩色棉育种的进一步发展,因此对新疆现有彩色棉品系的农艺性状鉴定和遗传特性的研究显得尤为重要。实验室前期经过近20年的努力,对已储备的各类优良品系白色棉种质资源和数千份彩棉育种材料进行了杂交,并对后代进行了色泽及重要农艺性状的调查,选育出了呈色相对稳定,且具有较好纤维品质的彩棉品种,目前它们已成为新疆的主栽品种。本研究选用棕色/绿色棉主栽品种各5个,分别与5个陆地棉品种(新疆本地品种3个,黄河流域品种2个)和2个海岛棉品种进行完全双列杂交,对所获得的 F2代群体的单株纤维色泽和农艺性状进行统计和分析;通过农艺性状和SSR分子标记技术进行聚类分析,考察17份亲本间遗传多样性;选择连锁性较好的几个亲本组合的F2对控制棕色和绿色纤维色泽的基因进行初步定位;选择一个非孟德尔比例的群体进行QTL定位,签订QTL位点。该研究旨在揭示新疆主栽彩棉品种的遗传学特征,为开展彩棉色素基因的克隆提供材料评价,也为彩棉优良新品种的选育提供种质资源以及理论基础。研究获得结果如下: 1、选择5个白色陆地棉品种与2个白色海岛棉品种分别与5个棕色棉品种以及5个绿色棉品种进行完全双列杂交,共得到29个孟德尔群体,推测棕色和绿色棉纤维色泽遗传由细胞核控制,均由一对主效基因决定;棕色主要呈现显性遗传模式,而绿色棉纤维色泽遗传呈现显性遗传、不完全显性遗传或隐形遗传的模式。 2、通过中棉41x新彩棉5号、新彩棉6号x新陆早31的 F2作为标记群体,结合已公布的陆地棉分子遗传图谱上染色体6(A组)和染色体7(A组)的SSR分子标记,对新彩棉5号和新彩棉6号的色素基因进行初步定位。在以上F2分离群体中通过分子标记定位,最终将新彩棉5号所携带的色素基因(Lc2)定位在第6染色体NAU5433和NAU2968两个标记之间,与最近标记NAU5433的遗传距离为4.4cM;将新彩棉6号所携带的色素基因(Lc1)定位在7染色体NAU1043和NAU2862两个标记之间,与最近标记NAU1043的遗传距离为1.9cM。 3、通过中41×绿182杂交得到的F2作为标记群体,结合已公布的陆陆分子遗传图谱上染色体15(D组)的SSR分子标记,对绿色棉182的色素基因进行初级定位,在分离群体中通过分子标记定位,最终将绿色棉182所携带的色素基因(Lg)定位在第15染色体上,与最近标记JESPR152的距离为14.16cM。 4、通过中棉所41和彩色棉1号杂交的F2群体作为QTL定位群体,在整个基因组中选择350条引物,经过亲本筛选后,共得到多态性引物45对。分别用此45对引物对F2代群体的137个单株进行扩增,共得到10个QTL连锁群,我们在此群体共得到两个棉花棕色纤维QTL位点qFC15-1和qFC15-2,其中qFC15-1的OD值是39.4,qFC15-2的OD值是38.2。
其他摘要Naturally,colored cotton appeared colors in the process of its fiber development,mainly including brown and green.With unique natural color,and no need for dying in the workpiece process,colored cotton reduced the pollution to our enviroment.Moreover,the under wear made from this kind of cotton is soft,comfortable and with no residual chemical toxins,so the underwear is harmless for humen health.Xinjiang has introduced colored cotton varieties from abroad since the 1990s,and it has been the biggest colored cotton plantation and raw matearials exporting area in the world.At present,crosss breeding,backcross,convergent cross,and triple cross,are conducted between colored cotton vatieties and white cotton varieties with good agronomic traits to improve the fiber quality of colored cotton.fortunately,the fiber quality of colored cotton has been significantly improved and the better varieties have been approved as well by using natural and artificial directional breeding during last decades,however,the fiber quality and extent of color still have a negative correlation,the higher quality with a lighter fiber color and vice versa.through constructing cross between the reserved kinds of white cotton varieties with best fiber quality and thousnds of colored cotton breeding matearials for two decades,and inrestigation on colors and agronomic traits of their decendants,we successfully selected the colored cotton varieties with stable color and better fiber quality,which have becoming the main cultivars in Xinjiang.In this study,we conducted complete diallel crossses between 2 sea island and 5 upland cotton varieties(3 Xinjiang native species and 2 yellow river species) and 5 brown and 5 green colored cotton varieties,respectively,and individual fiber color and agronomic traits were statistically analyzed in each F2 generation,the UPGMA and SSR molecular markers was used to examine the genetic relationship between different parents. F2 generation with better correlation were selected to anchor genes controlled brown and green fiber of colored cotton to chromosome,and one F2 generation was choosed to research on molecular mapping of QTLs for brown cotton fiber.Inorder to reveal the heredity properties on main cultivars of Xinjiang colored cotton ,provide validation of material for cloning genes controlled fiber color of colored cotton and theoretic basis and germplasm resource for cultivating excellent colored cotton.The result showed as following: 1) Twenty-nine Mendelian F2 generation were obtained after complete diallel crossses between 2 sea island and 5 upland cotton varieties and 5 brown and 5 green colored cotton varieties.Both green and brown fiber colors were determined by single nuclear gene;brown biber color mainly presanted dominant heredity,while green fiber color presented dominant, incomplete dominant,or recessive heredity. 2) Refering to published genetic map on chromosome six and seven(Set A), F2 generation from Zhongmian41xXincaimian5 and Xincaimian6xXinluzao31 were selected as the mapping population for Xincaimian5 and Xincaimian6, confirming Lc2 and Lc1 gene were controlled by dominant genes, we screen SSR makers Based on SSR backbone published before. Lc2 was located between NAU5433 and NAU2968,with a genetic distance 4.4cM with NAU5433 for Xincaimian5, Lc1 was located between NAU1043 and NAU2862,with a genetic distance 1.9 cM for Xincaimian6. 3) Refering to published genetic map on chromosome fifteen (Set D), F2 generation from Zhongmian41xLvsemian182 was selected as the mapping population for Lvsemian182, confirming Lg1 gene were controlled by dominant genes, we screen SSR makers Based on SSR backbone published before. Lg1was located between NAU3337 and JESPR152,with a genetic distance 14.16cM with JESPR152 for Lvsemian182. F2 generation from Zhongmian41xXincaimian1 was selected to research on molecular mapping of QTLs for brown cotton fiber,45 primer with polymorphism was obtained after the parental screening among 350 primer in upland tetraploid cotton genome,ten QTL linkage and 2 QTL loci qFC15-1 and qFC15-2 obtained from the investigation of individuals in this population.with the LOD score39.4 and 38.2 respectively.
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.xjipc.cas.cn/handle/365002/4388
专题资源化学研究室
作者单位中国科学院新疆理化技术研究所
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王利祥. 新疆彩棉色素决定基因的遗传分析、初步定位和QTL分析[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2012.
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