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CCD空间累积辐射效应及损伤机理研究
文林
学位类型博士
导师任迪远、郭旗
2015-05-29
学位授予单位中国科学院大学
学位授予地点北京
学位专业微电子学与固体电子学
关键词电荷耦合器件 电离总剂量效应 位移效应 损伤机理 敏感参数 基本单元
摘要

电荷耦合器件(Charge-Coupled Devices, CCD)广泛应用于航天光学遥感领域,是实现气象遥感、天文观测、对地成像等任务的核心器件。航天器运行的轨道处于天然空间辐射环境中,辐射环境中的带电粒子作用于CCD可导致累积辐射效应(电离总剂量效应、位移效应),将严重影响其在轨应用性能与运行寿命,因此,CCD的累积辐射效应与机理、模拟试验方法及加固技术多年来一直是国际上的研究热点。国外开展了大量相关研究,在辐射效应与机理、试验方法方面获得了许多重要结果,使器件加固与空间应用均达到了很高的水平。但是随着高灵敏度、大面阵、多光谱等新型CCD器件的发展,针对新结构、新工艺的辐射效应测试表征技术与辐射损伤机理研究仍存在不足之处,需要进一步的实验研究和理论分析来解决。国内近年来也越来越重视CCD等光电器件的辐射效应研究,但研究主要基于商用CCD器件,相关结果不足以支撑新型CCD器件的加固设计和工程应用评估。因此,本文针对国产工艺CCD开展了累积辐射效应与损伤机理研究。 本文选用了典型的国产工艺CCD原型器件(相对于商用器件具有薄栅氧、SiO2-Si3N4复合栅、多相转移等特点,是制作高灵敏度、大面阵、多光谱CCD的基本结构)开展累积辐射效应与损伤机理研究。首先,基于CCD的主要性能性能参数、器件结构及工作原理,分析了表征CCD辐射损伤物理过程的关键参数,建立了辐射效应参数测试方法,搭建了参数测试系统。然后,采用60Co-γ射线源、质子加速器和中子反应堆等辐照源开展了CCD累积辐射效应地面模拟试验研究。进行了60Co-γ射线下不同辐照偏置、不同剂量率辐照试验,考察了辐照偏置和剂量率对参数退化的影响;进行了不同能量质子、中子辐照试验,考察了位移效应导致的参数退化情况,以及不同能量质子产生位移缺陷的差异。在试验研究的基础上,分析了CCD辐射效应主要表征参数对电离总剂量效应和位移效应的敏感性,获得了CCD敏感参数在不同辐照条件下的退化规律;结合CCD的结构、工艺,通过CCD基本单元的辐照试验与器件仿真,深入分析了CCD的电离总剂量、位移损伤机理。论文的主要研究结果如下:(1)暗信号和饱和输出电压是CCD电离总剂量效应敏感参数;暗信号、电荷转移效率和光谱响应是位移效应敏感参数,因此CCD电离总剂量效应和位移效应评估方法可以考察相应的敏感参数。(2)电离总剂量效应主要导致CCD光电转换区MOS结构场氧化物内氧化物陷阱电荷大量累积,产生场致耗尽层,影响CCD信号电荷包的分布,使表面暗信号增加;电离总剂量效应同时在MOS单管栅氧化物与Si界面处产生大量界面态,导致阈值电压正向漂移,输出电路中信号放大管放大倍数降低,CCD饱和输出电压下降。(3)位移效应主要在Si内产生体缺陷,体缺陷作为载流子产生中心,导致CCD体暗信号增加;电荷转移过程中体缺陷通过俘获-发射载流子,导致电荷转移效率下降。光电转换过程中体缺陷的存在使少数载流子寿命降低,减小其扩散长度,导致远离耗尽区产生的光生载流子收集效率降低,导致吸收深度较大的长波光响应下降,CCD光谱响应退化。 通过论文研究,全面获得了国产工艺CCD的累积辐射效应参数退化规律,从单管、结构到电路深入分析了国产CCD的累积辐射效应损伤机理,分析了CCD光谱响应退化的物理机理,相关结果将为国产高灵敏度、大面阵、多光谱CCD的加固设计与空间应用评估供理论与数据依据。

其他摘要
CCD(charge coupled device) is the critical device in the satellite of weather forecast, astronomy, earth observation, navigation, and so on. Due to the complex radiation environment consist of Galactic cosmic rays, solar particles, and proton or electron from earth capture belts, the radiation effects induced by radiation environment will affect CCD, rusulting in CCD performance degradation gradually with the working hours of satellites in orbit, also the effective life of satellite. Because The optical system with high reliability and long life is always the pursuit of space missions, CCD space radiation environment adaptability and tolerance has become a international hot research field. Due to the high sensitivity of CCD, it is a difficult point of space radiation effects study that the sensitivity of defects caused by radiation in CCD. On the basis of the research results acqured for CCD radiation effects so far, the critical parameters of CCD are high radiation effects sensitivity, such as dark signal, charge transfer efficiency, and so on. The cause of CCD parameters degradation induced by radiation could be represented on the previous research on radiation effects of microelectronic devices. The effects of total ionizing dose took more thorough understanding, and the relevant technology, construction and CCD’s operating mode for effective suppression of radiation damage were suggested. But the displacement damage parameter degradation mechanism of CCD is still in the exploratory stage. The qualitative explanations and prediction differ greatly with the experimental results(typically a factor of 2), and the understanding about displacement damage is not perfect. Therefore, in order to reduce the effects of displacement damage, it’s impotant significance to raise the characterization mothod and parameters degradation mechanism of displacement damage in CCD. Base on the previous study results, this paper investigates the damage mechanism of CCD induced by ionizing and displacement radiation, and analyzes the property degradation mechanism induced by proton incidence by comparing the CCDs’ parameters degradation generated by incident 60Co-gamma ray and proton. This paper points out alse the effectiveness and limitation of the calculation method base on non-ionizing energy loss. For the first time the new method of separating displacement defects was proposed. The displacement damage was separated from the parameters degradation of CCD exposed to proton according to the comparison between the ionization damage and displacement damage. This paper pointed out that the CCD parameters change caused by displacement defects reflect the different influences of defects of various nature. Benefit from the current theoretical research of space radiation effects of semiconductor devices, it could be ignored that the specific nature of individual defects, and investigation was focused on the defect behavior. Following the progress of test and analysis method, for the first time the spectral response change of CCD induced by radiation were analyzed, and the CCD spectrum changes in different types of rays. The influencing mechanism of radiation on CCD saturation output voltage was found through the relationship of output unit and circuit degradation of CCD. At the same time, The comparison between different parameters was carried out, and the results show that the the displacement and ionizing radiation damage have similarity in the foundation of cumulative radiation effects, both can be used to describe the damage of CCD. Different parameters of the displacement damage degradation in large time scales has a good consistency (ignoring the test in detail, only consider the overall changes before and after irradiation), showing that defects in bulk Si induced different parameters shift have the same type or the same nature, namely it is possible to simplify the complex displacement damage defects through the defect level and non ionizing
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.xjipc.cas.cn/handle/365002/4271
专题材料物理与化学研究室
作者单位中国科学院新疆理化技术研究所
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文林. CCD空间累积辐射效应及损伤机理研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学,2015.
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