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油水分离用高分子海绵的制备及性能研究
穆磊
学位类型硕士
导师马鹏程
2015-05-29
学位授予单位中国科学院大学
学位授予地点北京
学位专业材料物理与化学
关键词高分子海绵 硅氧烷 密胺 超疏水超亲油 油水分离
摘要

开展高效油-水分离材料的制备及应用研究,对提高原油采收率以及污染物治理具有重要的意义。本论文以商业化的硅氧烷和密胺海绵为原料,分别通过简单的原位聚合和表面修饰,实现了超疏水超亲油三元硅氧烷海绵和密胺海绵的制备,分析了材料的油水分离特性。研究内容包括以下三个方面:1. 三元硅氧烷海绵及其吸油性能研究。以二甲基二甲氧基硅烷(DMDMS)、甲基三甲氧基硅烷(MTMS)和四乙氧基硅烷(TEOS)三种常见的硅氧烷为原料,通过简单的溶胶-凝胶法制备了三元硅氧烷海绵;探讨了TEOS 用量对海绵的交联度和力学性能的影响。研究发现:三元硅氧烷海绵具有优异的力学性能、稳定的超疏水超亲油润湿性,对常见有机溶剂和商品油具有较高的吸油倍率和循环吸油稳定性,对正十六烷/水和原油/水混合物可以实现有效的分离,而且还可以分离高温油,进一步扩展了硅氧烷海绵的应用范围。2. 建立了一种简单、高效的密胺海绵表面改性方法。采用MTMS 和TEOS两种常见硅氧烷作改性剂,经过水解-浸渍-固化三步处理,获得了具有超疏水超亲油特性的密胺海绵,而且这种润湿性具有相当显著的稳定性。改性密胺海绵对常见有机溶剂和商品油具有超高的吸油倍率和吸油稳定性,在真空辅助条件下对正辛烷/水和原油/水混合物可以实现持续、有效的分离。3. 以制备的改性密胺海绵为核心材料,设计了一种水面浮油收集装置。模拟研究了该装置用于收集水面泄露化学品和原油的可行性,结果表明该装置可实现油水混合物的高效分离。以此为基础,开发了新型的可用于收集水面浮油的收油机,并完成了应用性验证。

其他摘要
Materials with high performance for oil-water separation play an important role for enhancing the oil recovery efficiency and management of environmental contaminants. This thesis focuses on the preparation of super-hydrophobic polymers for oil-water separation by using commercial starting materials. Two polymer sponges, i.e., ternary silicone sponge and melamine sponge were prepared via the in-situ polymerization and surface modification techniques, respectively, and their mechanical, adsorption and thermal properties were studied. Major findings are summarized as follows: Ternary silicone sponge derived from methyltrimethoxysilane (MTMS), dimethyldimethoxysilicane (DMDMS) and tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) was prepared by using a simple sol-gel process. The effects of TEOS on the morphology and mechanical properties of sponge were studied. The developed silicone sponge showed a superhydrophobic and superlipophilic behavior, high adsorption capacity for a various organic solvents and oils with stable cyclic operations. The excellent thermal stability of sponge made the material possibly to be used under the high temperature conditions. A simple and efficient method for the chemical modification of melamine sponge was developed by using MTMS and TEOS as modifier. The modified-melamine sponge had an ultra-high oil absorption capacity for commonly organic solvents and oils without obvious dissolution/swelling. With assistance of a vacuum pump, the material can be employed for the continuous separation of octane and crude oil from corresponding water mixtures. By using the modified melamine sponge as key material, an experimental setup was established to demonstrate the feasibility of collecting oil and chemical spills from water surface. The research was further extended to design a prototype oil collector with capability to clean oily spills, and its applicability was verified.
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.xjipc.cas.cn/handle/365002/4267
专题环境科学与技术研究室
作者单位中国科学院新疆理化技术研究所
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穆磊. 油水分离用高分子海绵的制备及性能研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学,2015.
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