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膨润土复合淀粉保水剂的研究
谢玉玉
学位类型硕士
导师王晓军
2009-06
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业材料物理与化学
关键词膨润土 淀粉 水解率 保水剂 抗盐性
摘要膨润土作为新疆特有矿产资源,具有良好的吸水膨胀性、吸附性、阳离子交换等性能。本文针对西北地区干旱、多盐碱性土壤,传统保水剂抗盐性土质差的特点,在借鉴传统的淀粉接枝型保水剂的基础上,研究了加入膨润土为原料复合淀粉合成保水剂。论文旨在以新疆自产膨润土为原料,拟建立一套稳定性、耐盐性较好,又可在土壤中可以降解的保水材料。并考察了膨润土复合保水剂吸收蒸馏水能力及吸收生理盐水的能力。(1)首先对膨润土进行了湿法提纯,分别考察了矿浆质量分数、制浆时间、分散剂加入量三种因素对提纯效果的影响,通过对测量吸蓝量的测试,确定了最终的提纯工艺为:矿浆质量分数为20%,制浆时间为2h,分散剂添加量为0.2%。(2)采用GB 5009.7-85直接滴定法,测定淀粉水解后还原糖含量,确定了水解最优条件为:5g淀粉,150mL蒸馏水,6mLHCl(1:1),95℃水浴条件下水解90min可得到最大水解率为52%。为下一步膨润土复合接枝确定了前提条件。(3)进一步通过正交实验分析法和单因素分析法,确定了吸收蒸馏水倍率和吸收生理盐水倍率的最佳工艺条件,得到最大吸收蒸馏水倍率和最大吸收生理盐水倍率分别为398倍和143倍。(4)对膨润土复合保水剂各种性能参数进行测试:测定颗粒大小对吸收蒸馏水能力以及吸收生理盐水能力的影响,确定在100目-200目之间的颗粒具有最优的吸收蒸馏水能力和吸收生理盐水能力;测定膨润土复合保水剂吸水速率,实验表明复合保水剂在5.5小时后吸收蒸馏水达到饱和,3.5小时后吸取生理盐水达到饱和;复合保水剂热稳定性测试结果表明随着温度的升高,膨润土复合淀粉保水剂逐步释放吸收水;再吸收能力测试中,发现无论是再吸收蒸馏水能力还是再吸收生理盐水能力在室温条件下均具有良好的可重复性,再吸收能力分别可达到初次吸收倍率的96.73%和92.31%。 本论文旨在以新疆自产膨润土为原料,复合淀粉接枝丙烯酸,拟建立一套稳定性、耐盐性较好,又可在土壤中可以降解的保水材料,而且实验证明复合保水剂在高温失水后的再吸收能力也十分突出,这对新疆干旱、高温、少雨的气候具有重要的意义。
其他摘要
Bentonite is an abundant mineral resource of xinjiang province, it has good performance in absorbing water. Beeause of their excellent charaeteristies,superabsobrents are widely used in agriculture ,hortieulture, sealing composite and medicine for durg delivery and so on. (1) First of all, the bentonite is on the aqueous method depuration. Inspected the quality score, time and dispersing agent three kind of factors . Through the test, we can get the final determination is: quality score 20%, time 2h, adding 0.2% dispersant. (2) Second, uses the GB 5009.7-85 method to measure and determination of reducing sugar content after hydrolysis of starch, To determine the optimal conditions for hydrolysis is : 5g starch, 150mL distilled water, 6mLHCl (1:1), 95 ℃ water bath, 90min, get the largest rate is 52%. (3) Thirdly, by the orthogonal experimental analysis and single factor analysis, determine the absorption rate of distilled water and saline, and get the maximum absorption of distilled water and saline is 398 times and 143 times. (4) Finally, a variety of performance of bentonite composite aquasorb is tested. determination of particle size on the absorption capacity of distilled water, as well as the ability to absorb the effects of saline, determine that between the 100 and 200 has the optimal capacity of the absorption of distilled water and saline: Determination of absorbent bentonite composites aquasorb rate, experimental results show that composite aquasorb absorption in distilled water after 5.5 hours to reach saturation, 3.5 hours after the draw saline saturated; Aquasorb composite thermal stability test results show that with increasing temperature, Bentonite Composite aquasorb gradually release starch to absorb water; re-absorption capacity of the test and found that both the re-absorption capacity of distilled water or saline and then the ability to absorb at room temperature both have good repeatability, and absorptive capacity can be achieved, respectively, the initial absorption rate of 96.73% and 92.31%. This paper aims to take bentonite of Xinjiang province as raw material, acrylic acid grafted starch composites, to be the establishment of a stable, good salt tolerance, but also can be degraded in the soil water of the materials, but also proved complex water agent in high-temperature water and then after a very prominent absorption capacity, which in Xinjiang drought, high temperature, drier climate of great importance.
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.xjipc.cas.cn/handle/365002/3573
专题资源化学研究室
作者单位中国科学院新疆理化技术研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
谢玉玉. 膨润土复合淀粉保水剂的研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2009.
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