油酸聚内酯及其酯化物的合成及工艺研究
龙来早
学位类型硕士
导师吾满江.艾力
2009-06-04
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业材料物理与化学
关键词油酸 聚内酯 润滑剂 离子液体 非离子表面活性剂
摘要

随着工业化进程的发展,环境问题越来越受到人们的重视,发展环境友好润滑剂对保护环境和生态具有重要的意义。目前常用的环境友好润滑剂主要有植物油,植物油是是可再生资源,但由于植物油的低温流动性差而被限制了其实际应用。本文采用油酸异构化原理合成了油酸聚内酯,大大改善了低温流动性;并且油酸聚内酯继续与醇酯化得到低温流动性更好的聚油酸醇酯。同时考察了离子液体作溶剂和非离子表面活性剂微乳体系对反应的影响。离子液体作为溶剂合成油酸聚内酯时,油酸聚内酯的性能参数为:倾点-17℃,40℃的黏度为75mPa.s,100℃的黏度为11.5mPa.s,黏度指数145,酸值88 KOH/g,碘值16.5。非离子表面活性剂微乳体系合成油酸聚内酯时,实验结果为:倾点-16℃,40℃的黏度为75mPa.s,100℃的黏度为11.5mPa.s,黏度指数145,酸值87 KOH/g,碘值16.5。实验对比发现:两个不同的反应体系合成油酸聚内酯时,得到的产品性能相当,但离子液体的制备耗时耗能,非离子表面活性剂的获得清洁、方便。为了工业化生产需要,本论文的重点是采用非离子表面活性剂微乳体系进行研究。当催化剂使用量相同,反应体系仅高氯酸催化,油酸聚内酯经酯化后得到的聚油酸异辛酯的倾点-30℃,40℃的黏度17.5 mPa.S,100℃的黏度4.2mPa.s,黏度指数为150,収率80%,酸值0.5 KOH/g。反应体系有非离子表面活性剂存在时,通过优化试验条件得到的聚油酸异辛酯的倾点-35℃,40℃的黏度21.0mPa.S,100℃的黏度5.2mPa.s,黏度指数达到204,収率87%,酸值0.5 KOH/g。实验数据说明:非离子表面活性剂的存在增加了两相间的反应界面,提高了催化剂的利用率。要使得到性能相仿的聚油酸醇酯,无非离子表面活性剂的反应体系要增加催化剂高氯酸的用量40%。综上所述,非离子表面活性剂微乳体系合成绿色润滑剂基础油的工艺适合工业化生产,操作简单、成本低、低污染,可改善绿色润滑剂生产过程中环境污染的现状。此工艺在代替传统工艺、促进绿色润滑剂行业实现绿色生产方面,具有广阔的应用前景。

其他摘要
People have paid more and more attention to the environment as the development of industrialization in the world. It bears an important significance to environmental and eco-logical protection in developing environmental friendly lubricants. The often used envi-ronmental friendly lubricants are mainly contained of vegetable oils. Vegetable oils are re-producible source. But their practical application is limited because of bad low-temperature viscosity. A series of estolides were synthesized according to the isomerization theory which consumedly ameliorated low-temperature viscosity of vegetable oils. And the prod-uct with lower low-temperature fluidity can be obtained because cross-lactone continues to work with alcohol by esterification. Meanwhile, the effects of ionic liquids as solvent and nonionic surfactant as solubilization reagent on the reaction and the polymerization reac-tion mechanism were investigated. The effects of ionic liquid as solvent were investigated in the course of synthesis of estolide . The experimental results showed that its pour point reaches -17℃、viscosity reach 75mPa.s (40℃)and 11.5mPa.s (100℃)and viscosity index was 145、AV reaches 88 KOH/g、IV reaches 16.5. As nonionic surfactant,showed its pour point reaches -16℃、viscosity reach 75mPa.s (40℃)and 11.5mPa.s (100℃)and viscosity index was145、AV reaches 87 KOH/g、IV reaches 16.5. Comparative experiments were as follows: the reac-tion of two different synthesis systems, the performance received a considerable.But Preparation of ionic liquid is high energy and time consumpation, the non-ionic surfactant is easy to obtain. In order to adapt to the need for industrialization, the article mainly studied the preparation process of nonionic surfactant as microemulsion System. The use of the same catalyst, no nonionic surfactant was added in reaction, the experimental results were follows: pour point reaches -30℃; the viscosities of poly-oleic acid-isooctyl were 17.5mPa.s (40℃) and 4.2mPa.s (100℃); VI reaches 150; yield reaches 80%; acid value was 0.5 KOH/g. When we used nonionic surfactant, the optimal results were follows: pour point reaches -35℃; the viscosities of poly-oleic acid-isooctyl were 21.0mPa.s (40℃) and 5.2mPa.s (100℃); VI reaches 204; yield reaches 87%; acid value was 0.5 KOH/g. Experimental data: non-ionic surfactant to increase the existence of a two-phase reaction interface, and played a role in solubilization, to increase the utilization of the catalyst, reducing the pollution of the environment, the product performance to be better. Performance to be similar to the products, by no nonionic surfactant reaction system, it is necessary to increase the amount of perchloric acid catalyst 40%. In conclusion, the preparation process of the green lubricant base oil by the nonionic surfactant as solubilization reagent were simple, low cost and low pollution, so the preparation process was suitable for industrialization. Therefore, this techonoigy can replace the traditional process, and it has broad application prospects in promoting green production of green lubricants industry.
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.xjipc.cas.cn/handle/365002/3570
专题新疆维吾尔自治区精细化工工程技术研究中心
作者单位中国科学院新疆理化技术研究所
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龙来早. 油酸聚内酯及其酯化物的合成及工艺研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2009.
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