|关键词||毛菊苣 化学成分 多糖 活性 高速逆流色谱|
毛菊苣(Cichorium glandulosum Boiss. et Huet.)为菊科菊苣属植物，系我国维吾尔习用药材，具有清肝利胆，健胃消食，利尿消肿功效；用于湿热黄疸，胃痛食少，水肿尿少。为了阐明该植物的药效物质基础，作者对毛菊苣的地上部位进行了药材鉴定、化学成分提取、分离与鉴定及生物活性测试等一系列的研究。首先利用傅立叶变换红外光谱法建立了毛菊苣地上部位的红外指纹图谱，可以用于控制毛菊苣药材质量。然后对毛菊苣种子精油通过水蒸气蒸馏进行制备，通过气相色谱-质谱联用技术进行检测，鉴定了24 个化合物。从毛菊苣种子中分离、鉴定了19 个化合物的化学结构。其中15 个为从乙酸乙酯萃取部位分离得到，4 个为从正丁醇萃取部位分离得到，多数化合物为从这种植物中首次分离鉴定。从毛菊苣茎中，共分离、鉴定了12 个化合物，其中有3 个为新化合物，即两个倍半萜内酯（8-O-methylsenecioylaustricin，epi-8α-angeloxycichoralexin）和一个三萜葡萄糖苷（taraxasterol-3-O-β-D-glucoside）。对毛菊苣种子多糖进行提取、分离，制备了5 个组分，进行了理化性质研究，并进行了清除羟基自由基活性测试和蛋白非酶糖化抑制测试，发现组分PPS 具有一定的体外抗蛋白非酶糖化抑制作用。对从毛菊苣种子提取的标准组分进行了抗脂质过氧化筛选、促进载脂蛋白apoAI和B 族I 型清道夫受体(SR-B)相互作用活性测试和蛋白酪氨酸磷酸酶（PTP1B）抑制活性筛选，结果发现CGS2 对脂质过氧化抑制率为92% ，CGS3 为91%；标准组分CGS-1 的PTP1B 抑制活性其IC50 小于6 μg ml-1，有望开发为治疗Π 型糖尿病的功能产品。采用高速逆流色谱技术，成功从毛菊苣根提取物制备了山莴苣素、山莴苣苦素和11β,13-二氢山莴苣素三个倍半萜内酯，从毛菊苣种子提取物制备了七叶内酯。制备速度快，产品纯度高，可用作化学对照品以控制成药产品的质量。
Cichorium glandulosum Boiss. et Huet., belonging to the family Compositae and the genus Cichorium L. is habitually used by the Uygur nationality. It has the functions of clearing liver-heat and it is cholagogue，stomachic，digestive，diuretic and detumescent. Therefore it is used for the treatment of dampness-heat, jaundice, stomachache, anorexia, oedema and oliguria diseases. In order to clarify the bioactive basis of the medicinal plant, identification of aerial parts of C. glandulosum, chemical constituents extraction, separation and identification, as well as bioactivities assays were investigated. Firstly, the fingerprinting of the aerial parts of C. glandulosum were constructed using infrared spectroscopic method, which can be used to control the quality of crud medicinal material of C. glandulosum. Then, the essential oils of the seeds of C. glandulosum were extracted by steam distillation and analyzed by GC-MS, from which 24 compounds were identified. From the seeds of C. glandulosum, 19 compounds were isolated and identified, of which 15 compounds were obtained from ethyl acetate extracted fraction and 4 compounds were obtained from n-butanol extracted fraction. Most of the compounds were isolated and identified from the plant for the first time. From the stems of C. glandulosum, 12 compounds were isolated and identified. Among them, 3 compounds were isolated and elucidated as new compounds. The new compounds were 8-O-methylsenecioylaustricin，epi-8α-angeloxycichoralexin and taraxasterol-3-O-β-D-glucoside. Polysaccharides of the seeds of C. glandulosum were extracted, separated and 5 fractions were prepared, the chemical and physical properties of polysaccharides were studied. Bioactivities assays such as the effect of polysaccharides on hydroxide free radicals scavenging activities and effect of polysaccharides on protein nonenzymatic glycosylation were invistegated. As a result, one fraction named PPS has a certain protein nonenzymatic glycosylation inhibiting activity. Activities assays of standard extracts from the seeds of C. glandulosum such as anti-lipid peroxidation effect, interaction between apolipoprotein AI (apoAI)and scavenger receptors class B type I(SR-B), as well as inhibitation on protein tyrosine hosphatase 1B (PTP1B) were conducted. In the end, two fractions named CGS2 and CGS3 have inhibitory effects on lipid peroxidation (92% and 91% respectively). Another standard fraction called CGS1 has an inhibitory effect on PTP1B (IC50<6 μg ml-1), which may be used in anti-diabetes functional product development. Application of high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC), three sesquiterpene lactones (lactucopicrin, 11β,13-dihydrolactucin and lactucin )were successfully purified from the roots of C. glandulosum and esculetin was also separated from the seeds of C. glandulosum. The preparation was rapid and the obtained compounds were of high purity, which can be used to control the quality of finished products.
|吴汉夔. 毛菊苣化学成分和生物活性研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2008.|
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