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题名: 天然沙粒在有机高分子材料中的应用研究
作者: 沈杨彬
答辩日期: 2014-05-28
导师: 高林
专业: 有机化学
授予单位: 中国科学院大学
授予地点: 北京
学位: 硕士
关键词: 沙粒 ; 填料 ; 硅橡胶 ; 力学性能
摘要: 新疆地区幅员广阔,气候干燥,境内沙漠众多。主要的沙漠有塔克拉玛干沙漠、古尔班通古特沙漠、库姆塔格沙漠等,为了开发沙漠的潜在利用价值,文章做了大量的文献调研工作,并结合理论知识,选取了塔克拉玛干沙漠作为研究对象,并对该沙漠的沙粒进行了系统的分析。通过前期文献调研与实地考察,结合采样点的生态环境特征,在塔克拉玛干沙漠的不同位置采集两组沙粒,将沙粒进行了系统的物理化学分析检测,测试的沙粒数据包括沙粒粒径分布、沙粒成分、沙粒的水溶性和沙粒的热重分析。通过分析测试,发现两组沙样中主要成分都是石英、长石和方解石等轻矿物,石英、方解石、长石在橡胶、塑料、涂料行业用途广泛。将两组沙粒的进行对比,发现有一组沙粒平均粒径小且粒径分布较均匀、有机质含量低,有作为填料的优良潜质,降低生产成本。由于沙粒的主要成分都可以作为填料添加到高分子材料中,因此文中尝试使用沙粒作为填料添加到一种硅橡胶(PDMS材料)中,来判断其作为填料的效果,通过测试这种硅橡胶的力学性能,我们发现沙粒作为填料添加到这种硅橡胶中,可以达到补强效果,材料在拉伸强度、断裂伸长率、邵氏硬度等力学参数都有较大的改善。沙粒作为填料,与常规填料石英粉、碳酸钙等对比,在这种硅橡胶(PDMS橡胶)中的补强效果要明显强于碳酸钙粉末,与石英粉相当。当硅橡胶中的沙粒含量增加时,橡胶的邵氏硬度和拉伸强度都上升,在填料添加量为40%时候,拉伸强度达到0.8021MPa,达到了很好的补强效果。
英文摘要:
Xinjiang is the largest provinces in China and has dry climate and many deserts. The main deserts include Taklimakan Desert, Gurbantünggüt Desert and Kumtag Dersert.For the purpose of exploiting the potential value of sand in the desert,we has done a lot of research work. According to the former research,we selected the Taklimakan Desert as the study object, and carried out systematic analysis and evaluation for the natural sand in the deserts. According to the research and investigation,we collecting and analyzing two kinds of desert sand in different location in Taklimakan Desert, we got a series of sand datas,including particle size distribution, chemical constituents,water solubility and TG data. The data of the sand show that the main ingredients of the two sand samples are quartz, feldspar and calcite. Those kinds of light minerals are widely used in rubber,paints and plastics industry. Comparing the two groups of sand samples,we find one sand sample has smaller average particle size and contains less organic materials,can meet the requirement of the filler used in some polymers,reduce cost of production. Using the sand as filler in the silicone sealant,the crosslink density of silicone polymers will be larger compared with quartz sand. Because the main ingredients of the sand can be all used as fillers in the differenet polymers. We try to use the sand as filler in producing the silicone rubber (PDMS). In order to determine the effect of the filler,we test the mechanical strength and the thermostability of the silicone rubber.We find the sand can be well used as filler in this kind of silicone rubber.When using the sand as filler in silicone rubber, we find the sand can reinforce the rubber, the tensile strength, fracture strain, Shore hardness of the rubber have all improved. Compared with the commonly filler ,like quartz powder and calcium carbonate,when use the sand as filler in this kind of rubber, reinforcing effect of the sand is superior to the calcium carbonate,as good as quartz.When the content of sand in the rubber increased, tensile strength and Shore hardness are all increased. As the content of the sand increased to 40%,the tensile strength is 0.8021MPa.That means the rubber has been well reinforced.
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.xjipc.cas.cn/handle/365002/3421
Appears in Collections:资源化学研究室_学位论文

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作者单位: 中国科学院新疆理化技术研究所

Recommended Citation:
沈杨彬. 天然沙粒在有机高分子材料中的应用研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学. 2014.
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