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题名: 新型非易失存储器电离辐射效应及机理研究
作者: 张兴尧
答辩日期: 2014-05-20
导师: 郭旗
专业: 微电子学与固体电子学
授予单位: 中国科学院大学
授予地点: 北京
学位: 博士
关键词: 新型非易失存储器 ; 传统非易失存储器 ; 总剂量效应 ; 辐射敏感参数
摘要:  
Flash、SONOS都是非易失型存储器,具有在线可编程、数据信息掉电不丢失、读写速度高、抗震动性好等优势,在航天器中有广泛应用,是航天电子系统中不可或缺的核心器件。但是空间辐射环境中的电离辐射总剂量效应、位移损伤效应、单粒子效应等辐射效应会导致非易失存储器功能失效,这对航天电子系统将是灾难性的后果。铁电存储器、相变存储器、磁性存储器等新型非易失存储器不仅在性能上优于Flash等传统非易失存储器,在抗辐射能力上也有望更具优势,为了尽早将新型非易失存储器应用于航天电子系统中,需要全面掌握新型非易失性存储器的抗辐射能力,开展新型非易失性存储器的辐射效应和损伤机理研究,可以为航天系统高性能、高可靠信息存储进行知识积累和技术储备。本文主要针对主流的几款非易失性存储器技术,研究新型存储单元和存储器的辐射效应测试表征技术,将存储器置于不同辐射环境和不同工作条件下,全面地研究了参数退化的效应规律和功能失效模式,系统分析了非易失存储器的辐射损伤机理,在国内率先对不同非易失存储器的辐射效应、损伤机理进行了比较。 通过本文的研究,主要取得了以下的成果:
(1). 研究了非易失存储器的辐射效应测试技术。使用大规模数字电路测试系统开发测试程序,测试从存储器的器件手册中选取多种DC和AC参数,辐照前后使用程序对存储器进行测试。开发的测试程序扩大了寻找辐射敏感参数的范围,捕捉到文献中未曾报道的辐射敏感参数,提高了存储器的错误覆盖率,避免了对存储器抗辐射能力的高估。
(2). 研究了SONOS、Flash两款传统非易失存储器和铁电存储器、磁性存储器、相变存储器等新型非易失存储器的电离辐射效应和损伤机理。结果表明本文选择几款新型非易失存储器抗辐射能力基本要高于传统非易失存储器,提出了传统非易失存储器中的电荷泵电路是造成这种差异的观点,探讨了电荷泵电路在试验过程中辐射损伤机理。
(3). 新型非易失存储单元拥有优秀的抗辐射能力,阻变存储单元在使用60Coγ辐射源累积剂量达到200kGy(Si),器件功能正常,保持特性和耐受力性能稳定。铁电存储器、磁性存储器、相变存储器的试验结果表明新型非易失存储器功能失效的电路模块不是存储单元,而是CMOS控制电路。
(4). 分析了新型非易失存储器的辐射敏感参数与辐射感生陷阱电荷之间的关联关系,认为氧化物陷阱电荷引入附加电场使铁电薄膜受肖特基发射或空间电荷限制电流的作用导致了铁电存储器漏电流的增加,磁性存储器的漏电流增加可以用氧化物陷阱电荷的数目影响Frenkel-Poole效应的电流大小的原理解释。
(5). 研究了新型非易失存储器在不同工作条件和不同的辐射环境下的辐射效应。铁电存储器CMOS电路被偏置到不同的工作状态,对辐射的敏感程度不同,表现出不同的损伤响应。新型非易失存储器对高低剂量率的响应基本符合时间相关效应。新型非易失存储器的功能失效累积剂量在不同辐射源辐照下基本一致,辐射敏感参数的响应略有不同。将磁性存储器置于磁场与辐射场的复合场下,其功能失效阈值与总剂量效应相同,辐射敏感参数的表征反映复合场的辐射损伤要小于总剂量效应,原因可能是复合场产生了较少的氧化物陷阱电荷。
英文摘要: Flash and SONOS widely used in the field of spaceflight because of programmable, nonvolatile, high rate, and good resistance to vibration, they are core devices for spaceflight electronic systems. The functional of nonvolatile memory would be failure by ionizing effect, displacement damage effect and single event effect. FRAM, MRAM and PCRAM are new nonvolatile memories. The performances of new nonvolatile memories are superior to traditional nonvolatile memories, and the anti-radiation ability of new nonvolatile memories also superior to traditional nonvolatile memories. The anti-radiation abilities of new nonvolatile memories need to be gotten in order to equip memories in spaceflight electronic systems. The knowledge of high performance data storage was accumulated after radiation effects and mechanism of new nonvolatile memories were studied. This article focused on the test technology of new nonvolatile memories radiation effect. The radiation mechanism, the roles of parameters degradation and functional failure mode are analyzed by putting the memories in different bias, different radiation sources, different dose rate. The difference of radiation mechanisms between traditional nonvolatile memory and new nonvolatile memory were studied, the difference of radiation mechanisms among new nonvolatile memories was discussed. The main research results can be listed as follows. (1) The radiation characterization technique of new nonvolatile memories was studied. Parameters of DC, AC and functional pattern were tested by using large-scale digital circuit testing system. The radiation characterization technique enlarge the search scope of radiation sensitive paratmeters, the radiation sensitive paratmeters which were not reported in literature were captured. The fault coverage of memory was improved, which could effectively prevent overestimate the ability of anti-radiation. (2) The ionizing radiation effect and mechanisms of Flash, SONOS, FRAM, MRAM and PCRAM were studied. The anti-radiation ability of new nonvolatile memories was better than that of traditional nonvolatile memories because of charge pump, therefore the radiation mechanism of charge pump was analyzed. (3) New nonvolatile memories had good radiation toleration. The cells of RRAM could function properly after TID of 200 kGy(Si) using 60Co γ source, retention and endurance characteristics had not significantly degrade even after a high-TID. The reason of functional failure was not the cell of memory but rather CMOS peripheral control circuit of memory was deteriorated according to experiment phenomena of FRAM, MRAM and PCRAM. (4) The relationship between trapped charges and radiation sensitive paratmeters was discussed, additional electric ?eld was introduced by oxide trapped charges, and leakage current was produced since the Schottky emission or space-charge-limited current occurred. Leakage current of MRAM was increased could be explained by oxide trapped charges affect the Frenkel-Poole effect. (5) The radiation effect of new nonvolatile memories under different radiation sources, different dose rate and bias were studied. The respond to radiation of FRAM under different bias were different because CMOS circuit were biased to different state. New nonvolatile memories accorded with time dependent effect under different dose rate.The cumulative dose of functional failure basically the same under different radiation sources, but the change of parameters were different slightly. The function of MRAM was failed in the same level dose to composite field and TID, but parameters manifested the radiation damage of composite field is less than that of TID because composite field produced less oxide trapped charges.
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.xjipc.cas.cn/handle/365002/3404
Appears in Collections:材料物理与化学研究室_学位论文

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作者单位: 中国科学院新疆理化技术研究所

Recommended Citation:
张兴尧. 新型非易失存储器电离辐射效应及机理研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学. 2014.
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