A new noncentrosymmetric borophosphate, RbPbBP2O8, has been synthesized and its high quality single crystal with dimensions up to 23 mm x 18 mm x 7 mm was successfully grown by the Kyropoulos method for the first time. It crystallizes in the tetragonal system, space group I42d with cell parameters a = 7.213(3) angstrom, c = 13.987(10) angstrom, Z = 4, V = 727.8(6) angstrom(3). The structure analysis reveals that RbPbBP2O8 features a three-dimensional framework composed of BO4 and PO4 tetrahedra interconnected by MO8 (M = Rb/Pb) distorted polyhedra. The powder second harmonic generation effect of RbPbBP2O8 is similar to that of KH2PO4. Thermal analysis and transmittance spectroscopy were also performed on the reported crystal.