Staghorn sumac (Rhus hirta L) is a native tree in Eastern Canada whose fruit has been used by aboriginal peoples to treat various illnesses, and has recently been found to be a good source of antioxidants. However, the phytochemical composition of R. hirta is not known. In this study, we used Four highly accepted assays and confirmed its FRAP, ORAC, beta-CLAMS and PCL values to be 79.95 mu mol AAE/g DW, 1544 mu mol TE/g DW, RAA 129% and 4513 mu mol TE/g DW, respectively. The antioxidant activities correlated positively to the total polyphenols content, which was higher in the ethanolic extract (81.6 mg GAE/ g DW) compared to the water extract (46.3 mg GAE/g DW), suggesting polyphenols play an important role. Quantitative data from UHPLC and qualitative studies using HPLC-DAD-MS showed that in addition to commonly found phenolic acids, flavonoids and anthocyanins, R. hirta fruit contained a novel group of unique anthocyanins with aglycones (anthocyanidins) at 449, 419 and 433 Da. Further studies on the identification and their health beneficial effects are being conducted. Crown Copyright (C) 2012 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.