Scavenger receptor class B,type I (SR-BI) was a well characterized high density lipoprotein ( HDL) receptor. It is highly expressed in the liver and steroidogenic cells where its expression is regulated by various trophic hormones,cholesterol,dietary elements and so on. SR-BI mediates the selective uptake of cholesteryl ester (CE) from HDL,and is the sole target to modulate reverse cholesterol transport,so it plays a key role in regulating HDL metabolism and cholesterol transport. It represents a novel target which may prove valuable for the prevention or therapeutic intervention in atherosclerosis/cardiovascular diseases. Its molecular structure and expression regulation were reviewed.